update_option( string $option, mixed $value, string|bool $autoload = null )

Update the value of an option that was already added.


Description Description

You do not need to serialize values. If the value needs to be serialized, then it will be serialized before it is inserted into the database. Remember, resources can not be serialized or added as an option.

If the option does not exist, then the option will be added with the option value, with an $autoload value of ‘yes’.


Parameters Parameters

$option

(string) (Required) Option name. Expected to not be SQL-escaped.

$value

(mixed) (Required) Option value. Must be serializable if non-scalar. Expected to not be SQL-escaped.

$autoload

(string|bool) (Optional) Whether to load the option when WordPress starts up. For existing options, $autoload can only be updated using update_option() if $value is also changed. Accepts 'yes'|true to enable or 'no'|false to disable. For non-existent options, the default value is 'yes'.

Default value: null


Top ↑

Return Return

(bool) False if value was not updated and true if value was updated.


Top ↑

Source Source

File: wp-includes/option.php

function update_option( $option, $value, $autoload = null ) {
	global $wpdb;

	$option = trim($option);
	if ( empty($option) )
		return false;

	wp_protect_special_option( $option );

	if ( is_object( $value ) )
		$value = clone $value;

	$value = sanitize_option( $option, $value );
	$old_value = get_option( $option );

	/**
	 * Filters a specific option before its value is (maybe) serialized and updated.
	 *
	 * The dynamic portion of the hook name, `$option`, refers to the option name.
	 *
	 * @since 2.6.0
	 * @since 4.4.0 The `$option` parameter was added.
	 *
	 * @param mixed  $value     The new, unserialized option value.
	 * @param mixed  $old_value The old option value.
	 * @param string $option    Option name.
	 */
	$value = apply_filters( "pre_update_option_{$option}", $value, $old_value, $option );

	/**
	 * Filters an option before its value is (maybe) serialized and updated.
	 *
	 * @since 3.9.0
	 *
	 * @param mixed  $value     The new, unserialized option value.
	 * @param string $option    Name of the option.
	 * @param mixed  $old_value The old option value.
	 */
	$value = apply_filters( 'pre_update_option', $value, $option, $old_value );

	/*
	 * If the new and old values are the same, no need to update.
	 *
	 * Unserialized values will be adequate in most cases. If the unserialized
	 * data differs, the (maybe) serialized data is checked to avoid
	 * unnecessary database calls for otherwise identical object instances.
	 *
	 * See https://core.trac.wordpress.org/ticket/38903
	 */
	if ( $value === $old_value || maybe_serialize( $value ) === maybe_serialize( $old_value ) ) {
		return false;
	}

	/** This filter is documented in wp-includes/option.php */
	if ( apply_filters( "default_option_{$option}", false, $option, false ) === $old_value ) {
		// Default setting for new options is 'yes'.
		if ( null === $autoload ) {
			$autoload = 'yes';
		}

		return add_option( $option, $value, '', $autoload );
	}

	$serialized_value = maybe_serialize( $value );

	/**
	 * Fires immediately before an option value is updated.
	 *
	 * @since 2.9.0
	 *
	 * @param string $option    Name of the option to update.
	 * @param mixed  $old_value The old option value.
	 * @param mixed  $value     The new option value.
	 */
	do_action( 'update_option', $option, $old_value, $value );

	$update_args = array(
		'option_value' => $serialized_value,
	);

	if ( null !== $autoload ) {
		$update_args['autoload'] = ( 'no' === $autoload || false === $autoload ) ? 'no' : 'yes';
	}

	$result = $wpdb->update( $wpdb->options, $update_args, array( 'option_name' => $option ) );
	if ( ! $result )
		return false;

	$notoptions = wp_cache_get( 'notoptions', 'options' );
	if ( is_array( $notoptions ) && isset( $notoptions[$option] ) ) {
		unset( $notoptions[$option] );
		wp_cache_set( 'notoptions', $notoptions, 'options' );
	}

	if ( ! wp_installing() ) {
		$alloptions = wp_load_alloptions();
		if ( isset( $alloptions[$option] ) ) {
			$alloptions[ $option ] = $serialized_value;
			wp_cache_set( 'alloptions', $alloptions, 'options' );
		} else {
			wp_cache_set( $option, $serialized_value, 'options' );
		}
	}

	/**
	 * Fires after the value of a specific option has been successfully updated.
	 *
	 * The dynamic portion of the hook name, `$option`, refers to the option name.
	 *
	 * @since 2.0.1
	 * @since 4.4.0 The `$option` parameter was added.
	 *
	 * @param mixed  $old_value The old option value.
	 * @param mixed  $value     The new option value.
	 * @param string $option    Option name.
	 */
	do_action( "update_option_{$option}", $old_value, $value, $option );

	/**
	 * Fires after the value of an option has been successfully updated.
	 *
	 * @since 2.9.0
	 *
	 * @param string $option    Name of the updated option.
	 * @param mixed  $old_value The old option value.
	 * @param mixed  $value     The new option value.
	 */
	do_action( 'updated_option', $option, $old_value, $value );
	return true;
}

Top ↑

Changelog Changelog

Changelog
Version Description
4.2.0 The $autoload parameter was added.
1.0.0 Introduced.


Top ↑

User Contributed Notes User Contributed Notes

  1. Skip to note content
    Contributed by bellasys

    According to the WordPress Codex (and my experiences developing with WP) note an important subtlety in the return value here:
    “True if option value has changed, false if not or if update failed.

    It is also recommended on some forums to check for the existence of an option via code:

    if ( ! get_option('my_option') ) ...

    But I don’t find this works when the option exists and I have set my_option to bool FALSE!

    To handle all checking of existence of options, I exploit the update_option subtlety:

    if (FALSE === get_option('my_option') && FALSE === update_option('my_option',FALSE)) add_option('my_option',$default_value);

    The second check yields FALSE when setting the option with the value of FALSE produces no change…therefore if the value truly didn’t exist, it will be added with (in my case) the desired $default_value.

    I know this seems extreme, but to the best of my knowledge this is the only way I’ve been able to preserve bool FALSE on my plugin options, and to assert valid actions based on the actual presence of my custom options.

  2. Skip to note content
    Contributed by Mahesh Prajapati

    Update Option Stored in Multi-Dimensional Array

    update multi-dimensional array and retrieve the entire array.

    //store in one variable
    $multidimensional_options = array(
      'inner_array'=>array(
           'foo' => 'bar',
           'hello' => 'world',
       ),
    );
     
    //Update entire array
    update_option('my_multi_options', $multidimensional_options);
     
    //Get entire array
    $my_multi_options = get_option('my_multi_options');
  3. Skip to note content
    Contributed by Codex

    Example: Updating Core Options
    Set the default comment status to ‘closed’:

    <?php update_option( 'default_comment_status', 'closed' ); ?>

    This option is usually set in from the Settings > Discussion administration panel. See the Option Reference for a full list of options used by WordPress Core.

    Note: Use get_option() to confirm an option value.

    <?php echo get_option( 'default_comment_status' ); ?>
  4. Skip to note content
    Contributed by Codex

    Example: Updating Custom Options
    You can also create your own custom options. This example updates the option 'my_custom_option' with the value 255:

    <?php update_option( 'my_custom_option', 255 ); ?>

    This will automatically add the option if it does not exist (and set the option’s value).

    If you don’t want your custom option to auto-load when WordPress starts up, use add_option(). This example updates the option if it already exists; if it does not exist it uses add_option() to set $autoload to 'no'.

    <?php
    $option_name = 'my_custom_color_option' ;
    $new_value = 'red';
    
    if ( get_option( $option_name ) !== false ) {
    
        // The option already exists, so update it.
        update_option( $option_name, $new_value );
    
    } else {
    
        // The option hasn't been created yet, so add it with $autoload set to 'no'.
        $deprecated = null;
        $autoload = 'no';
        add_option( $option_name, $new_value, $deprecated, $autoload );
    }
    ?>
  5. Skip to note content
    Contributed by Codex

    Note
    Option values retrieved via WordPress functions are cached. If you modify an options outside of the Options API, then try to update a cached option, the update will fail and return false. Use the following method to clear the options cache before trying to get or update the options on the same request:

    <?php wp_cache_delete ( 'alloptions', 'options' ); ?>
  6. Skip to note content
    Contributed by Mahesh Prajapati

    Update Option Stored in Multi-Dimensional Array

    To update just part of the multi-dimensional array its necessary to retrieve the entire array, alter it accordingly and then update the entire array.

    //store in one variable
    $multidimensional_options = array(
      'inner_array'=>array(
           'foo' => 'bar',
           'hello' => 'world',
       ),
    );
    
    //Update entire array
    update_option('my_multi_options', $multidimensional_options);
    
    
    //Get entire array
    $my_options = get_option('my_options');

You must log in before being able to contribute a note or feedback.