activate_plugin( string $plugin, string $redirect = '', bool $network_wide = false, bool $silent = false )

Attempts activation of plugin in a “sandbox” and redirects on success.


Description Description

A plugin that is already activated will not attempt to be activated again.

The way it works is by setting the redirection to the error before trying to include the plugin file. If the plugin fails, then the redirection will not be overwritten with the success message. Also, the options will not be updated and the activation hook will not be called on plugin error.

It should be noted that in no way the below code will actually prevent errors within the file. The code should not be used elsewhere to replicate the "sandbox", which uses redirection to work. {@source 13 1}

If any errors are found or text is outputted, then it will be captured to ensure that the success redirection will update the error redirection.


Parameters Parameters

$plugin

(string) (Required) Path to the main plugin file from plugins directory.

$redirect

(string) (Optional) URL to redirect to.

Default value: ''

$network_wide

(bool) (Optional) Whether to enable the plugin for all sites in the network or just the current site. Multisite only.

Default value: false

$silent

(bool) (Optional) Whether to prevent calling activation hooks.

Default value: false


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Return Return

(WP_Error|null) WP_Error on invalid file or null on success.


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Source Source

File: wp-admin/includes/plugin.php

function activate_plugin( $plugin, $redirect = '', $network_wide = false, $silent = false ) {
	$plugin = plugin_basename( trim( $plugin ) );

	if ( is_multisite() && ( $network_wide || is_network_only_plugin($plugin) ) ) {
		$network_wide = true;
		$current = get_site_option( 'active_sitewide_plugins', array() );
		$_GET['networkwide'] = 1; // Back compat for plugins looking for this value.
	} else {
		$current = get_option( 'active_plugins', array() );
	}

	$valid = validate_plugin($plugin);
	if ( is_wp_error($valid) )
		return $valid;

	if ( ( $network_wide && ! isset( $current[ $plugin ] ) ) || ( ! $network_wide && ! in_array( $plugin, $current ) ) ) {
		if ( !empty($redirect) )
			wp_redirect(add_query_arg('_error_nonce', wp_create_nonce('plugin-activation-error_' . $plugin), $redirect)); // we'll override this later if the plugin can be included without fatal error
		ob_start();
		wp_register_plugin_realpath( WP_PLUGIN_DIR . '/' . $plugin );
		$_wp_plugin_file = $plugin;
		include_once( WP_PLUGIN_DIR . '/' . $plugin );
		$plugin = $_wp_plugin_file; // Avoid stomping of the $plugin variable in a plugin.

		if ( ! $silent ) {
			/**
			 * Fires before a plugin is activated.
			 *
			 * If a plugin is silently activated (such as during an update),
			 * this hook does not fire.
			 *
			 * @since 2.9.0
			 *
			 * @param string $plugin       Path to the main plugin file from plugins directory.
			 * @param bool   $network_wide Whether to enable the plugin for all sites in the network
			 *                             or just the current site. Multisite only. Default is false.
			 */
			do_action( 'activate_plugin', $plugin, $network_wide );

			/**
			 * Fires as a specific plugin is being activated.
			 *
			 * This hook is the "activation" hook used internally by register_activation_hook().
			 * The dynamic portion of the hook name, `$plugin`, refers to the plugin basename.
			 *
			 * If a plugin is silently activated (such as during an update), this hook does not fire.
			 *
			 * @since 2.0.0
			 *
			 * @param bool $network_wide Whether to enable the plugin for all sites in the network
			 *                           or just the current site. Multisite only. Default is false.
			 */
			do_action( "activate_{$plugin}", $network_wide );
		}

		if ( $network_wide ) {
			$current = get_site_option( 'active_sitewide_plugins', array() );
			$current[$plugin] = time();
			update_site_option( 'active_sitewide_plugins', $current );
		} else {
			$current = get_option( 'active_plugins', array() );
			$current[] = $plugin;
			sort($current);
			update_option('active_plugins', $current);
		}

		if ( ! $silent ) {
			/**
			 * Fires after a plugin has been activated.
			 *
			 * If a plugin is silently activated (such as during an update),
			 * this hook does not fire.
			 *
			 * @since 2.9.0
			 *
			 * @param string $plugin       Path to the main plugin file from plugins directory.
			 * @param bool   $network_wide Whether to enable the plugin for all sites in the network
			 *                             or just the current site. Multisite only. Default is false.
			 */
			do_action( 'activated_plugin', $plugin, $network_wide );
		}

		if ( ob_get_length() > 0 ) {
			$output = ob_get_clean();
			return new WP_Error('unexpected_output', __('The plugin generated unexpected output.'), $output);
		}
		ob_end_clean();
	}

	return null;
}

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Changelog Changelog

Changelog
Version Description
2.5.0 Introduced.


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User Contributed Notes User Contributed Notes

  1. Skip to note content
    Contributed by Codex

    Plugin cache issue

    Issues with the plugin cache are caused when the plugin files are added or modified, after the plugins have all been initialised. This can be resolved by reloading the page, sending the activate_plugin() as a separate AJAX request, or if necessary, by manually updating the cache. Example below;

    $cache_plugins = wp_cache_get( 'plugins', 'plugins' );
    if ( !empty( $cache_plugins ) ) {
    	$new_plugin = array(
    		'Name'        => $plugin_name,
    		'PluginURI'   => $plugin_uri,
    		'Version'     => $plugin_version,
    		'Description' => $plugin_description,
    		'Author'      => $author_name,
    		'AuthorURI'   => $author_uri,
    		'TextDomain'  => '',
    		'DomainPath'  => '',
    		'Network'     => '',
    		'Title'       => $plugin_name,
    		'AuthorName'  => $author_name,
    	);
    	$cache_plugins[''][$plugin_path] = $new_plugin;
    	wp_cache_set( 'plugins', $cache_plugins, 'plugins' );
    }
    

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