wp_nav_menu ( array $args = array() )

Displays a navigation menu.

Return: (object|false|void) Menu output if $echo is false, false if there are no items or no menu was found.

Source file: wp-includes/nav-menu-template.php

View source


Parameters

$args

(array) (Optional) Array of nav menu arguments.

  • 'menu'
    (string) Desired menu. Accepts (matching in order) id, slug, name.
  • 'menu_class'
    (string) CSS class to use for the ul element which forms the menu. Default 'menu'.
  • 'menu_id'
    (string) The ID that is applied to the ul element which forms the menu. Default is the menu slug, incremented.
  • 'container'
    (string) Whether to wrap the ul, and what to wrap it with. Default 'div'.
  • 'container_class'
    (string) Class that is applied to the container. Default 'menu-{menu slug}-container'.
  • 'container_id'
    (string) The ID that is applied to the container.
  • 'fallback_cb'
    (callable|bool) If the menu doesn't exists, a callback function will fire. Default is 'wp_page_menu'. Set to false for no fallback.
  • 'before'
    (string) Text before the link text.
  • 'after'
    (string) Text after the link text.
  • 'link_before'
    (string) Text before the link.
  • 'link_after'
    (string) Text after the link.
  • 'echo'
    (bool) Whether to echo the menu or return it. Default true.
  • 'depth'
    (int) How many levels of the hierarchy are to be included. 0 means all. Default 0.
  • 'walker'
    (object) Instance of a custom walker class.
  • 'theme_location'
    (string) Theme location to be used. Must be registered with register_nav_menu() in order to be selectable by the user.
  • 'items_wrap'
    (string) How the list items should be wrapped. Default is a ul with an id and class. Uses printf() format with numbered placeholders.

Default value: array()


More Information

Usage

wp_nav_menu( $args );

Given a theme_location parameter, the function displays the menu assigned to that location. If no such location exists or no menu is assigned to it, the parameter fallback_cb will determine what is displayed.

If not given a theme_location parameter, the function displays

  • the menu matching the ID, slug, or name given by the menu parameter;
  • otherwise, the first non-empty menu;
  • otherwise (or if the menu given by menu is empty), output of the function given by the fallback_cb parameter (wp_page_menu(), by default);
  • otherwise nothing.

Menu Item CSS Classes

The following classes are applied to menu items, i.e. to the HTML <li> tags, generated by wp_nav_menu():

All Menu Items

  • .menu-item
    This class is added to every menu item.
  • .menu-item-has-children
    This class is added to menu item which has sub-items .
  • .menu-item-object-{object}
    This class is added to every menu item, where {object} is either a post type or a taxonomy.
  • .menu-item-object-category
    This class is added to menu items that correspond to a category.
  • .menu-item-object-tag
    This class is added to menu items that correspond to a tag.
  • .menu-item-object-page
    This class is added to menu items that correspond to static pages.
  • .menu-item-object-{custom}
    This class is added to menu items that correspond to a custom post type or a custom taxonomy.
  • .menu-item-type-{type}
    This class is added to every menu item, where {type} is either “post_type” or “taxonomy”.
  • .menu-item-type-post_type
    This class is added to menu items that correspond to post types: i.e. static pages or custom post types.
  • .menu-item-type-taxonomy
    This class is added to menu items that correspond to taxonomies: i.e. categories, tags, or custom taxonomies.

Current-Page Menu Items

  • .current-menu-item
    This class is added to menu items that correspond to the currently rendered page.

Current-Page Parent Menu Items

  • .current-menu-parent
    This class is added to menu items that correspond to the hierarchical parent of the currently rendered page.
  • .current-{object}-parent
    This class is added to menu items that correspond to the hierachical parent of the currently rendered object, where {object} corresponds to the the value used for .menu-item-object-{object}.
  • .current-{type}-parent
    This class is added to menu items that correspond to the hierachical parent of the currently rendered type, where {type} corresponds to the the value used for .menu-item-type-{type}.

Current-Page Ancestor Menu Items

  • .current-menu-ancestor
    This class is added to menu items that correspond to a hierarchical ancestor of the currently rendered page.
  • .current-{object}-ancestor
    This class is added to menu items that correspond to a hierachical ancestor of the currently rendered object, where {object} corresponds to the the value used for .menu-item-object-{object}.
  • .current-{type}-ancestor
    This class is added to menu items that correspond to a hierachical ancestor of the currently rendered type, where {type} corresponds to the the value used for .menu-item-type-{type}.

Site Front Page Menu Items

  • .menu-item-home
    This class is added to menu items that correspond to the site front page.

Backward Compatibility with wp_page_menu()

The following classes are added to maintain backward compatibility with the [[Function Reference/wp_page_menu|wp_page_menu()]] function output:

  • .page_item
    This class is added to menu items that correspond to a static page.
  • .page_item_has_children
    This class is added to menu items that have sub pages to it.
  • .page-item-$ID
    This class is added to menu items that correspond to a static page, where $ID is the static page ID.
  • .current_page_item
    This class is added to menu items that correspond to the currently rendered static page.
  • .current_page_parent
    This class is added to menu items that correspond to the hierarchical parent of the currently rendered static page.
  • .current_page_ancestor
    This class is added to menu items that correspond to a hierarchical ancestor of the currently rendered static page.

Uses


Source

function wp_nav_menu( $args = array() ) {
	static $menu_id_slugs = array();

	$defaults = array( 'menu' => '', 'container' => 'div', 'container_class' => '', 'container_id' => '', 'menu_class' => 'menu', 'menu_id' => '',
	'echo' => true, 'fallback_cb' => 'wp_page_menu', 'before' => '', 'after' => '', 'link_before' => '', 'link_after' => '', 'items_wrap' => '<ul id="%1$s" class="%2$s">%3$s</ul>',
	'depth' => 0, 'walker' => '', 'theme_location' => '' );

	$args = wp_parse_args( $args, $defaults );
	/**
	 * Filter the arguments used to display a navigation menu.
	 *
	 * @since 3.0.0
	 *
	 * @see wp_nav_menu()
	 *
	 * @param array $args Array of wp_nav_menu() arguments.
	 */
	$args = apply_filters( 'wp_nav_menu_args', $args );
	$args = (object) $args;

	/**
	 * Filter whether to short-circuit the wp_nav_menu() output.
	 *
	 * Returning a non-null value to the filter will short-circuit
	 * wp_nav_menu(), echoing that value if $args->echo is true,
	 * returning that value otherwise.
	 *
	 * @since 3.9.0
	 *
	 * @see wp_nav_menu()
	 *
	 * @param string|null $output Nav menu output to short-circuit with. Default null.
	 * @param object      $args   An object containing wp_nav_menu() arguments.
	 */
	$nav_menu = apply_filters( 'pre_wp_nav_menu', null, $args );

	if ( null !== $nav_menu ) {
		if ( $args->echo ) {
			echo $nav_menu;
			return;
		}

		return $nav_menu;
	}

	// Get the nav menu based on the requested menu
	$menu = wp_get_nav_menu_object( $args->menu );

	// Get the nav menu based on the theme_location
	if ( ! $menu && $args->theme_location && ( $locations = get_nav_menu_locations() ) && isset( $locations[ $args->theme_location ] ) )
		$menu = wp_get_nav_menu_object( $locations[ $args->theme_location ] );

	// get the first menu that has items if we still can't find a menu
	if ( ! $menu && !$args->theme_location ) {
		$menus = wp_get_nav_menus();
		foreach ( $menus as $menu_maybe ) {
			if ( $menu_items = wp_get_nav_menu_items( $menu_maybe->term_id, array( 'update_post_term_cache' => false ) ) ) {
				$menu = $menu_maybe;
				break;
			}
		}
	}

	if ( empty( $args->menu ) ) {
		$args->menu = $menu;
	}

	// If the menu exists, get its items.
	if ( $menu && ! is_wp_error($menu) && !isset($menu_items) )
		$menu_items = wp_get_nav_menu_items( $menu->term_id, array( 'update_post_term_cache' => false ) );

	/*
	 * If no menu was found:
	 *  - Fall back (if one was specified), or bail.
	 *
	 * If no menu items were found:
	 *  - Fall back, but only if no theme location was specified.
	 *  - Otherwise, bail.
	 */
	if ( ( !$menu || is_wp_error($menu) || ( isset($menu_items) && empty($menu_items) && !$args->theme_location ) )
		&& isset( $args->fallback_cb ) && $args->fallback_cb && is_callable( $args->fallback_cb ) )
			return call_user_func( $args->fallback_cb, (array) $args );

	if ( ! $menu || is_wp_error( $menu ) )
		return false;

	$nav_menu = $items = '';

	$show_container = false;
	if ( $args->container ) {
		/**
		 * Filter the list of HTML tags that are valid for use as menu containers.
		 *
		 * @since 3.0.0
		 *
		 * @param array $tags The acceptable HTML tags for use as menu containers.
		 *                    Default is array containing 'div' and 'nav'.
		 */
		$allowed_tags = apply_filters( 'wp_nav_menu_container_allowedtags', array( 'div', 'nav' ) );
		if ( is_string( $args->container ) && in_array( $args->container, $allowed_tags ) ) {
			$show_container = true;
			$class = $args->container_class ? ' class="' . esc_attr( $args->container_class ) . '"' : ' class="menu-'. $menu->slug .'-container"';
			$id = $args->container_id ? ' id="' . esc_attr( $args->container_id ) . '"' : '';
			$nav_menu .= '<'. $args->container . $id . $class . '>';
		}
	}

	// Set up the $menu_item variables
	_wp_menu_item_classes_by_context( $menu_items );

	$sorted_menu_items = $menu_items_with_children = array();
	foreach ( (array) $menu_items as $menu_item ) {
		$sorted_menu_items[ $menu_item->menu_order ] = $menu_item;
		if ( $menu_item->menu_item_parent )
			$menu_items_with_children[ $menu_item->menu_item_parent ] = true;
	}

	// Add the menu-item-has-children class where applicable
	if ( $menu_items_with_children ) {
		foreach ( $sorted_menu_items as &$menu_item ) {
			if ( isset( $menu_items_with_children[ $menu_item->ID ] ) )
				$menu_item->classes[] = 'menu-item-has-children';
		}
	}

	unset( $menu_items, $menu_item );

	/**
	 * Filter the sorted list of menu item objects before generating the menu's HTML.
	 *
	 * @since 3.1.0
	 *
	 * @param array  $sorted_menu_items The menu items, sorted by each menu item's menu order.
	 * @param object $args              An object containing wp_nav_menu() arguments.
	 */
	$sorted_menu_items = apply_filters( 'wp_nav_menu_objects', $sorted_menu_items, $args );

	$items .= walk_nav_menu_tree( $sorted_menu_items, $args->depth, $args );
	unset($sorted_menu_items);

	// Attributes
	if ( ! empty( $args->menu_id ) ) {
		$wrap_id = $args->menu_id;
	} else {
		$wrap_id = 'menu-' . $menu->slug;
		while ( in_array( $wrap_id, $menu_id_slugs ) ) {
			if ( preg_match( '#-(\d+)$#', $wrap_id, $matches ) )
				$wrap_id = preg_replace('#-(\d+)$#', '-' . ++$matches[1], $wrap_id );
			else
				$wrap_id = $wrap_id . '-1';
		}
	}
	$menu_id_slugs[] = $wrap_id;

	$wrap_class = $args->menu_class ? $args->menu_class : '';

	/**
	 * Filter the HTML list content for navigation menus.
	 *
	 * @since 3.0.0
	 *
	 * @see wp_nav_menu()
	 *
	 * @param string $items The HTML list content for the menu items.
	 * @param object $args  An object containing wp_nav_menu() arguments.
	 */
	$items = apply_filters( 'wp_nav_menu_items', $items, $args );
	/**
	 * Filter the HTML list content for a specific navigation menu.
	 *
	 * @since 3.0.0
	 *
	 * @see wp_nav_menu()
	 *
	 * @param string $items The HTML list content for the menu items.
	 * @param object $args  An object containing wp_nav_menu() arguments.
	 */
	$items = apply_filters( "wp_nav_menu_{$menu->slug}_items", $items, $args );

	// Don't print any markup if there are no items at this point.
	if ( empty( $items ) )
		return false;

	$nav_menu .= sprintf( $args->items_wrap, esc_attr( $wrap_id ), esc_attr( $wrap_class ), $items );
	unset( $items );

	if ( $show_container )
		$nav_menu .= '</' . $args->container . '>';

	/**
	 * Filter the HTML content for navigation menus.
	 *
	 * @since 3.0.0
	 *
	 * @see wp_nav_menu()
	 *
	 * @param string $nav_menu The HTML content for the navigation menu.
	 * @param object $args     An object containing wp_nav_menu() arguments.
	 */
	$nav_menu = apply_filters( 'wp_nav_menu', $nav_menu, $args );

	if ( $args->echo )
		echo $nav_menu;
	else
		return $nav_menu;
}


Changelog


User Contributed Notes

  1. Targeting a specific menu with no fallback to wp_page_menu()

    In the case that no menu matching menu is found, it seems that passing a bogus theme_location is the only way to prevent falling back to the first non-empty menu:

    wp_nav_menu( array(
    	'menu'           => 'Project Nav', // Do not fall back to first non-empty menu.
    	'theme_location' => '__no_such_location'
    	'fallback_cb'    => false // Do not fall back to wp_page_menu()
    ) );
    
  2. Removing the ul wrap

    This example will remove the unordered list wrap around the list items. Replacing the wrap HTML with the %3$s specifier results in only outputting the HTML list content for the menu items, because items_wrap is built using sprintf()

    items_wrap default before:

    <ul id="%1$s" class="%2$s">%3$s</ul>
    

    items_wrap after:

    %3$s
    

    Example:

    wp_nav_menu( array( 'items_wrap' => '%3$s' ) );
    
  3. Adding a Word at the Beginning of the Menu

    This example will allows you to add the word of your choice to the beginning of your menu as a list item. In this example, the word “Menu:” is added at the beginning. You may want to set an id on the list item (“item-id” in this example) so that you can use CSS to style it.

    wp_nav_menu( array(
    	'theme_location' => 'primary',
    	'items_wrap'     => '<ul><li id="item-id"><?php __( 'Menu:', 'textdomain' ); ?></li>%3$s</ul>'
    ) );
    
  4. Adding Conditional Classes to Menu Items

    This example would let you add a custom class to a menu item based on the condition you specify. Don’t forget to change the condition.

    /**
     * Filter the CSS class for a nav menu based on a condition.
     *
     * @param array  $classes The CSS classes that are applied to the menu item's <li> element.
     * @param object $item    The current menu item.
     * @return array (maybe) modified nav menu class.
     */
    function wpdocs_special_nav_class( $classes, $item ) {
    	if ( is_single() && 'Blog' == $item->title ) {
    		// Notice you can change the conditional from is_single() and $item->title
    		$classes[] = "special-class";
    	}
    	return $classes;
    }
    add_filter( 'nav_menu_css_class' , 'wpdocs_special_nav_class' , 10, 2 );
    
  5. Using a Custom Walker Function

    For deeper conditional classes, you’ll need to use a custom walker function (created in the 'walker' => new Your_Walker_Function argument).

    The simplest way to build a new walker function is to copy and extend the default class (Walker_Nav_Menu) from /wp-includes/nav-menu-template.php and simply customize what you need.

    Example:

    This custom walker function will add several conditional classes to your nav menu (i.e. sub-menu, even/odd, etc):

    wp_nav_menu( array(
    	'menu'   => 'Something custom walker',
    	'walker' => new WPDocs_Walker_Nav_Menu()
    ) );
    
    /**
     * Custom walker class.
     */
    class WPDocs_Walker_Nav_Menu extends Walker_Nav_Menu {
    
    	/**
    	 * Starts the list before the elements are added.
    	 *
    	 * Adds classes to the unordered list sub-menus.
    	 *
    	 * @param string $output Passed by reference. Used to append additional content.
    	 * @param int    $depth  Depth of menu item. Used for padding.
    	 * @param array  $args   An array of arguments. @see wp_nav_menu()
    	 */
    	function start_lvl( &$output, $depth = 0, $args = array() ) {
    		// Depth-dependent classes.
    		$indent = ( $depth > 0  ? str_repeat( "\t", $depth ) : '' ); // code indent
    		$display_depth = ( $depth + 1); // because it counts the first submenu as 0
    		$classes = array(
    			'sub-menu',
    			( $display_depth % 2  ? 'menu-odd' : 'menu-even' ),
    			( $display_depth >=2 ? 'sub-sub-menu' : '' ),
    			'menu-depth-' . $display_depth
    		);
    		$class_names = implode( ' ', $classes );
    
    		// Build HTML for output.
    		$output .= "\n" . $indent . '<ul class="' . $class_names . '">' . "\n";
    	}
    
    	/**
    	 * Start the element output.
    	 *
    	 * Adds main/sub-classes to the list items and links.
    	 *
    	 * @param string $output Passed by reference. Used to append additional content.
    	 * @param object $item   Menu item data object.
    	 * @param int    $depth  Depth of menu item. Used for padding.
    	 * @param array  $args   An array of arguments. @see wp_nav_menu()
    	 * @param int    $id     Current item ID.
    	 */
    	function start_el( &$output, $item, $depth = 0, $args = array(), $id = 0 ) {
    		global $wp_query;
    		$indent = ( $depth > 0 ? str_repeat( "\t", $depth ) : '' ); // code indent
    
    		// Depth-dependent classes.
    		$depth_classes = array(
    			( $depth == 0 ? 'main-menu-item' : 'sub-menu-item' ),
    			( $depth >=2 ? 'sub-sub-menu-item' : '' ),
    			( $depth % 2 ? 'menu-item-odd' : 'menu-item-even' ),
    			'menu-item-depth-' . $depth
    		);
    		$depth_class_names = esc_attr( implode( ' ', $depth_classes ) );
    
    		// Passed classes.
    		$classes = empty( $item->classes ) ? array() : (array) $item->classes;
    		$class_names = esc_attr( implode( ' ', apply_filters( 'nav_menu_css_class', array_filter( $classes ), $item ) ) );
    
    		// Build HTML.
    		$output .= $indent . '<li id="nav-menu-item-'. $item->ID . '" class="' . $depth_class_names . ' ' . $class_names . '">';
    
    		// Link attributes.
    		$attributes  = ! empty( $item->attr_title ) ? ' title="'  . esc_attr( $item->attr_title ) .'"' : '';
    		$attributes .= ! empty( $item->target )     ? ' target="' . esc_attr( $item->target     ) .'"' : '';
    		$attributes .= ! empty( $item->xfn )        ? ' rel="'    . esc_attr( $item->xfn        ) .'"' : '';
    		$attributes .= ! empty( $item->url )        ? ' href="'   . esc_attr( $item->url        ) .'"' : '';
    		$attributes .= ' class="menu-link ' . ( $depth > 0 ? 'sub-menu-link' : 'main-menu-link' ) . '"';
    
    		// Build HTML output and pass through the proper filter.
    		$item_output = sprintf( '%1$s<a%2$s>%3$s%4$s%5$s</a>%6$s',
    			$args->before,
    			$attributes,
    			$args->link_before,
    			apply_filters( 'the_title', $item->title, $item->ID ),
    			$args->link_after,
    			$args->after
    		);
    		$output .= apply_filters( 'walker_nav_menu_start_el', $item_output, $item, $depth, $args );
    	}
    }
    
  6. Different menus for logged-in users

    This example would cause a menu to show for logged-in users and a different menu for users not logged-in.

    wp_nav_menu( array(
    	'theme_location' => is_user_logged_in() ? 'logged-in-menu' : 'logged-out-menu'
    ) );
    
  7. How to add a parent class for menu item

    Sometimes you may need to add a class to a menu item if it has sub-menus.

    /**
     * Add a parent CSS class for nav menu items.
     *
     * @param array  $items The menu items, sorted by each menu item's menu order.
     * @return array (maybe) modified parent CSS class.
     */
    function wpdocs_add_menu_parent_class( $items ) {
    	$parents = array();
    
    	// Collect menu items with parents.
    	foreach ( $items as $item ) {
    		if ( $item->menu_item_parent && $item->menu_item_parent > 0 ) {
    			$parents[] = $item->menu_item_parent;
    		}
    	}
    
    	// Add class.
    	foreach ( $items as $item ) {
    		if ( in_array( $item->ID, $parents ) ) {
    			$item->classes[] = 'menu-parent-item';
    		}
    	}
    	return $items;
    }
    add_filter( 'wp_nav_menu_objects', 'wpdocs_add_menu_parent_class' );
    
  8. I’m a little confused about the parameters “before / after” and “link_before / link_after”.

    This reference says “before / after” are inside the link, including the link-text, and “link_before / link_after” are outside the link, including the link.

    What confuses me:
    Some tutorials say, it’s exactly the other way round, (inside / outside):
    here and here
    I’m coming to the same result, when looking at one of my active WP-installations.

    What is correct?

    • You were right to be confused: the arguments were in fact switched in terms of documentation. This has been fixed in [37561] for 4.6. Thanks for the tip!

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