wp_mail( string|array $to, string $subject, string $message, string|array $headers = '', string|array $attachments = array() )

Send mail, similar to PHP’s mail


Description Description

A true return value does not automatically mean that the user received the email successfully. It just only means that the method used was able to process the request without any errors.

Using the two ‘wp_mail_from’ and ‘wp_mail_from_name’ hooks allow from creating a from address like ‘Name email@address.com‘ when both are set. If just ‘wp_mail_from’ is set, then just the email address will be used with no name.

The default content type is ‘text/plain’ which does not allow using HTML. However, you can set the content type of the email by using the ‘wp_mail_content_type’ filter.

The default charset is based on the charset used on the blog. The charset can be set using the ‘wp_mail_charset’ filter.


Parameters Parameters

$to

(string|array) (Required) Array or comma-separated list of email addresses to send message.

$subject

(string) (Required) Email subject

$message

(string) (Required) Message contents

$headers

(string|array) (Optional) Additional headers.

Default value: ''

$attachments

(string|array) (Optional) Files to attach.

Default value: array()


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Return Return

(bool) Whether the email contents were sent successfully.


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Source Source

File: wp-includes/pluggable.php

function wp_mail( $to, $subject, $message, $headers = '', $attachments = array() ) {
	// Compact the input, apply the filters, and extract them back out

	/**
	 * Filters the wp_mail() arguments.
	 *
	 * @since 2.2.0
	 *
	 * @param array $args A compacted array of wp_mail() arguments, including the "to" email,
	 *                    subject, message, headers, and attachments values.
	 */
	$atts = apply_filters( 'wp_mail', compact( 'to', 'subject', 'message', 'headers', 'attachments' ) );

	if ( isset( $atts['to'] ) ) {
		$to = $atts['to'];
	}

	if ( isset( $atts['subject'] ) ) {
		$subject = $atts['subject'];
	}

	if ( isset( $atts['message'] ) ) {
		$message = $atts['message'];
	}

	if ( isset( $atts['headers'] ) ) {
		$headers = $atts['headers'];
	}

	if ( isset( $atts['attachments'] ) ) {
		$attachments = $atts['attachments'];
	}

	if ( ! is_array( $attachments ) ) {
		$attachments = explode( "\n", str_replace( "\r\n", "\n", $attachments ) );
	}
	global $phpmailer;

	// (Re)create it, if it's gone missing
	if ( ! ( $phpmailer instanceof PHPMailer ) ) {
		require_once ABSPATH . WPINC . '/class-phpmailer.php';
		require_once ABSPATH . WPINC . '/class-smtp.php';
		$phpmailer = new PHPMailer( true );
	}

	// Headers
	$cc = $bcc = $reply_to = array();

	if ( empty( $headers ) ) {
		$headers = array();
	} else {
		if ( !is_array( $headers ) ) {
			// Explode the headers out, so this function can take both
			// string headers and an array of headers.
			$tempheaders = explode( "\n", str_replace( "\r\n", "\n", $headers ) );
		} else {
			$tempheaders = $headers;
		}
		$headers = array();

		// If it's actually got contents
		if ( !empty( $tempheaders ) ) {
			// Iterate through the raw headers
			foreach ( (array) $tempheaders as $header ) {
				if ( strpos($header, ':') === false ) {
					if ( false !== stripos( $header, 'boundary=' ) ) {
						$parts = preg_split('/boundary=/i', trim( $header ) );
						$boundary = trim( str_replace( array( "'", '"' ), '', $parts[1] ) );
					}
					continue;
				}
				// Explode them out
				list( $name, $content ) = explode( ':', trim( $header ), 2 );

				// Cleanup crew
				$name    = trim( $name    );
				$content = trim( $content );

				switch ( strtolower( $name ) ) {
					// Mainly for legacy -- process a From: header if it's there
					case 'from':
						$bracket_pos = strpos( $content, '<' );
						if ( $bracket_pos !== false ) {
							// Text before the bracketed email is the "From" name.
							if ( $bracket_pos > 0 ) {
								$from_name = substr( $content, 0, $bracket_pos - 1 );
								$from_name = str_replace( '"', '', $from_name );
								$from_name = trim( $from_name );
							}

							$from_email = substr( $content, $bracket_pos + 1 );
							$from_email = str_replace( '>', '', $from_email );
							$from_email = trim( $from_email );

						// Avoid setting an empty $from_email.
						} elseif ( '' !== trim( $content ) ) {
							$from_email = trim( $content );
						}
						break;
					case 'content-type':
						if ( strpos( $content, ';' ) !== false ) {
							list( $type, $charset_content ) = explode( ';', $content );
							$content_type = trim( $type );
							if ( false !== stripos( $charset_content, 'charset=' ) ) {
								$charset = trim( str_replace( array( 'charset=', '"' ), '', $charset_content ) );
							} elseif ( false !== stripos( $charset_content, 'boundary=' ) ) {
								$boundary = trim( str_replace( array( 'BOUNDARY=', 'boundary=', '"' ), '', $charset_content ) );
								$charset = '';
							}

						// Avoid setting an empty $content_type.
						} elseif ( '' !== trim( $content ) ) {
							$content_type = trim( $content );
						}
						break;
					case 'cc':
						$cc = array_merge( (array) $cc, explode( ',', $content ) );
						break;
					case 'bcc':
						$bcc = array_merge( (array) $bcc, explode( ',', $content ) );
						break;
					case 'reply-to':
						$reply_to = array_merge( (array) $reply_to, explode( ',', $content ) );
						break;
					default:
						// Add it to our grand headers array
						$headers[trim( $name )] = trim( $content );
						break;
				}
			}
		}
	}

	// Empty out the values that may be set
	$phpmailer->ClearAllRecipients();
	$phpmailer->ClearAttachments();
	$phpmailer->ClearCustomHeaders();
	$phpmailer->ClearReplyTos();

	// From email and name
	// If we don't have a name from the input headers
	if ( !isset( $from_name ) )
		$from_name = 'WordPress';

	/* If we don't have an email from the input headers default to wordpress@$sitename
	 * Some hosts will block outgoing mail from this address if it doesn't exist but
	 * there's no easy alternative. Defaulting to admin_email might appear to be another
	 * option but some hosts may refuse to relay mail from an unknown domain. See
	 * https://core.trac.wordpress.org/ticket/5007.
	 */

	if ( !isset( $from_email ) ) {
		// Get the site domain and get rid of www.
		$sitename = strtolower( $_SERVER['SERVER_NAME'] );
		if ( substr( $sitename, 0, 4 ) == 'www.' ) {
			$sitename = substr( $sitename, 4 );
		}

		$from_email = 'wordpress@' . $sitename;
	}

	/**
	 * Filters the email address to send from.
	 *
	 * @since 2.2.0
	 *
	 * @param string $from_email Email address to send from.
	 */
	$from_email = apply_filters( 'wp_mail_from', $from_email );

	/**
	 * Filters the name to associate with the "from" email address.
	 *
	 * @since 2.3.0
	 *
	 * @param string $from_name Name associated with the "from" email address.
	 */
	$from_name = apply_filters( 'wp_mail_from_name', $from_name );

	$phpmailer->setFrom( $from_email, $from_name, false );

	// Set destination addresses
	if ( !is_array( $to ) )
		$to = explode( ',', $to );

	// Set mail's subject and body
	$phpmailer->Subject = $subject;
	$phpmailer->Body    = $message;

	// Use appropriate methods for handling addresses, rather than treating them as generic headers
	$address_headers = compact( 'to', 'cc', 'bcc', 'reply_to' );

	foreach ( $address_headers as $address_header => $addresses ) {
		if ( empty( $addresses ) ) {
			continue;
		}

		foreach ( (array) $addresses as $address ) {
			try {
				// Break $recipient into name and address parts if in the format "Foo <bar@baz.com>"
				$recipient_name = '';

				if ( preg_match( '/(.*)<(.+)>/', $address, $matches ) ) {
					if ( count( $matches ) == 3 ) {
						$recipient_name = $matches[1];
						$address        = $matches[2];
					}
				}

				switch ( $address_header ) {
					case 'to':
						$phpmailer->addAddress( $address, $recipient_name );
						break;
					case 'cc':
						$phpmailer->addCc( $address, $recipient_name );
						break;
					case 'bcc':
						$phpmailer->addBcc( $address, $recipient_name );
						break;
					case 'reply_to':
						$phpmailer->addReplyTo( $address, $recipient_name );
						break;
				}
			} catch ( phpmailerException $e ) {
				continue;
			}
		}
	}

	// Set to use PHP's mail()
	$phpmailer->IsMail();

	// Set Content-Type and charset
	// If we don't have a content-type from the input headers
	if ( !isset( $content_type ) )
		$content_type = 'text/plain';

	/**
	 * Filters the wp_mail() content type.
	 *
	 * @since 2.3.0
	 *
	 * @param string $content_type Default wp_mail() content type.
	 */
	$content_type = apply_filters( 'wp_mail_content_type', $content_type );

	$phpmailer->ContentType = $content_type;

	// Set whether it's plaintext, depending on $content_type
	if ( 'text/html' == $content_type )
		$phpmailer->IsHTML( true );

	// If we don't have a charset from the input headers
	if ( !isset( $charset ) )
		$charset = get_bloginfo( 'charset' );

	// Set the content-type and charset

	/**
	 * Filters the default wp_mail() charset.
	 *
	 * @since 2.3.0
	 *
	 * @param string $charset Default email charset.
	 */
	$phpmailer->CharSet = apply_filters( 'wp_mail_charset', $charset );

	// Set custom headers
	if ( !empty( $headers ) ) {
		foreach ( (array) $headers as $name => $content ) {
			$phpmailer->AddCustomHeader( sprintf( '%1$s: %2$s', $name, $content ) );
		}

		if ( false !== stripos( $content_type, 'multipart' ) && ! empty($boundary) )
			$phpmailer->AddCustomHeader( sprintf( "Content-Type: %s;\n\t boundary=\"%s\"", $content_type, $boundary ) );
	}

	if ( !empty( $attachments ) ) {
		foreach ( $attachments as $attachment ) {
			try {
				$phpmailer->AddAttachment($attachment);
			} catch ( phpmailerException $e ) {
				continue;
			}
		}
	}

	/**
	 * Fires after PHPMailer is initialized.
	 *
	 * @since 2.2.0
	 *
	 * @param PHPMailer &$phpmailer The PHPMailer instance, passed by reference.
	 */
	do_action_ref_array( 'phpmailer_init', array( &$phpmailer ) );

	// Send!
	try {
		return $phpmailer->Send();
	} catch ( phpmailerException $e ) {

		$mail_error_data = compact( 'to', 'subject', 'message', 'headers', 'attachments' );
		$mail_error_data['phpmailer_exception_code'] = $e->getCode();

		/**
		 * Fires after a phpmailerException is caught.
		 *
		 * @since 4.4.0
		 *
		 * @param WP_Error $error A WP_Error object with the phpmailerException message, and an array
		 *                        containing the mail recipient, subject, message, headers, and attachments.
		 */
		do_action( 'wp_mail_failed', new WP_Error( 'wp_mail_failed', $e->getMessage(), $mail_error_data ) );

		return false;
	}
}

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Changelog Changelog

Changelog
Version Description
1.2.1 Introduced.

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More Information More Information

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Usage Usage

wp_mail( $to, $subject, $message, $headers, $attachments );

Optional filters ‘wp_mail_from‘ and ‘wp_mail_from_name‘ are run on the sender email address and name. The return values are reassembled into a ‘from’ address like ‘”Example User” ‘ If only ‘wp_mail_from‘ returns a value, then just the email address will be used with no name.

The default content type is ‘text/plain’ which does not allow using HTML. You can set the content type of the email either by using the ‘wp_mail_content_type‘ filter ( see example below), or by including a header like “Content-type: text/html”. Be careful to reset ‘wp_mail_content_type’ back to ‘text/plain’ after you send your message, though, because failing to do so could lead to unexpected problems with e-mails from WP or plugins/themes.

The default charset is based on the charset used on the blog. The charset can be set using the ‘wp_mail_charset‘ filter.

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Notes Notes

  • A true return value does not automatically mean that the user received the email successfully.
  • For this function to work, the settings SMTP and smtp_port (default: 25) need to be set in your php.ini file.
  • The function is available after the hook 'plugins_loaded'.
  • The filenames in the $attachments attribute have to be filesystem paths.

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Valid Address Formats Valid Address Formats

All email addresses supplied to wp_mail() as the $to parameter must comply with RFC 2822. Some valid examples:

  • user@example.com
  • user@example.com, anotheruser@example.com
  • User <user@example.com>
  • User <user@example.com>, Another User <anotheruser@example.com>

The same applies to Cc: and Bcc: fields in $headers, but as noted in the next section, it’s better to push multiple addresses into an array instead of listing them on a single line. Either address format, with or without the user name, may be used.

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Using $headers To Set “From:”, “Cc:” and “Bcc:” Parameters Using $headers To Set “From:”, “Cc:” and “Bcc:” Parameters

To set the “From:” email address to something other than the WordPress default sender, or to add “Cc:” and/or “Bcc:” recipients, you must use the $headers argument.

$headers can be a string or an array, but it may be easiest to use in the array form. To use it, push a string onto the array, starting with “From:”, “Bcc:” or “Cc:” (note the use of the “:”), followed by a valid email address.

When you are using the array form, you do not need to supply line breaks ("\n" or "\r\n"). Although the function can handle multiple emails per line, it may simply be easier to push each email address separately onto the $headers array. The function will figure it out and will build the proper Mime header automagically. Just don’t forget that each string you push must have the header type as the first part of the string (“From:”, “Cc:” or “Bcc:”)



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User Contributed Notes User Contributed Notes

  1. Skip to note content
    Contributed by Codex

    Switch to HTML formatted email (using the wp_mail_content_type filter):

    <?php
    add_filter( 'wp_mail_content_type', 'wpdocs_set_html_mail_content_type' );
    
    $to = 'sendto@example.com';
    $subject = 'The subject';
    $body = 'The email body content';
    
    wp_mail( $to, $subject, $body );
    
    // Reset content-type to avoid conflicts -- https://core.trac.wordpress.org/ticket/23578
    remove_filter( 'wp_mail_content_type', 'wpdocs_set_html_mail_content_type' );
    
    function wpdocs_set_html_mail_content_type() {
    	return 'text/html';
    }
    ?>
    
  2. Skip to note content
    Contributed by Codex

    Example using the array form of $headers:

    <?php
    // assumes $to, $subject, $message have already been defined earlier...
    
    $headers[] = 'From: Me Myself <me@example.net>';
    $headers[] = 'Cc: John Q Codex <jqc@wordpress.org>';
    $headers[] = 'Cc: iluvwp@wordpress.org'; // note you can just use a simple email address
    
    wp_mail( $to, $subject, $message, $headers );
    ?>
    
  3. Skip to note content
    Contributed by stratboy

    Here’s an example of a basic configuration for SMTP (so phpmailer will be used instead of php’s mail()):

    add_action( 'phpmailer_init', 'mailer_config', 10, 1);
    function mailer_config(PHPMailer $mailer){
      $mailer->IsSMTP();
      $mailer->Host = "mail.telemar.it"; // your SMTP server
      $mailer->Port = 25;
      $mailer->SMTPDebug = 2; // write 0 if you don't want to see client/server communication in page
      $mailer->CharSet  = "utf-8";
    }

    Here’s an example of a basic error logging:

    add_action('wp_mail_failed', 'log_mailer_errors', 10, 1);
    function log_mailer_errors(){
      $fn = ABSPATH . '/mail.log'; // say you've got a mail.log file in your server root
      $fp = fopen($fn, 'a');
      fputs($fp, "Mailer Error: " . $mailer->ErrorInfo ."\n");
      fclose($fp);
    }

    Then use wp_mail() to send your mail.

    If you’re using it for sending a form and your form’s action is the page’s permalink, you can do some basic checking for $_POST lenght/count to see if the page comes from a form submission.

    if(count($_POST) != 0){ // on top of page
      // Then collect form data and try to send the form and write messages and so on...
      // Note: set $mailer->SMTPDebug to 0 to prevent it to write server messages on the page
    }
    

    NOTE: if you are using MAMP PRO to test from your local server, you should:

    – go to the Postfix panel
    – write your current virtual server as the ‘domain of outgoing email’
    – activate ‘use a smart host for routing’
    – write your provider’s smtp server (the same you are using in your mail client config)
    – Eventually add authentication (then you should also setup the credentials in the phpmailer_init action)

  4. Skip to note content
    Contributed by drbobjr

    Having spent nearly a day banging my head against this one, I would strongly recommend that the doc for wp_mail() include the tip that many servers will require that a mail user account be created with the email address of wordpress@domain.com before this function will work. I would have NEVER figured that one out without many hours of google searches.

  5. Skip to note content
    Contributed by daniyalahmedk

    Combining Content-Type(HTML) and From (Site name and “from” email)

    $to = 'emailsendto@example.com';
    $subject = 'The subject';
    $body = 'The email body content';
    $headers = array('Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8','From: My Site Name <support@example.com');
    
    wp_mail( $to, $subject, $body, $headers );
    

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