paginate_links( string|array $args = '' )

Retrieve paginated link for archive post pages.


Description Description

Technically, the function can be used to create paginated link list for any area. The ‘base’ argument is used to reference the url, which will be used to create the paginated links. The ‘format’ argument is then used for replacing the page number. It is however, most likely and by default, to be used on the archive post pages.

The ‘type’ argument controls format of the returned value. The default is ‘plain’, which is just a string with the links separated by a newline character. The other possible values are either ‘array’ or ‘list’. The ‘array’ value will return an array of the paginated link list to offer full control of display. The ‘list’ value will place all of the paginated links in an unordered HTML list.

The ‘total’ argument is the total amount of pages and is an integer. The ‘current’ argument is the current page number and is also an integer.

An example of the ‘base’ argument is “http://example.com/all_posts.php%_%” and the ‘%_%’ is required. The ‘%_%’ will be replaced by the contents of in the ‘format’ argument. An example for the ‘format’ argument is “?page=%#%” and the ‘%#%’ is also required. The ‘%#%’ will be replaced with the page number.

You can include the previous and next links in the list by setting the ‘prev_next’ argument to true, which it is by default. You can set the previous text, by using the ‘prev_text’ argument. You can set the next text by setting the ‘next_text’ argument.

If the ‘show_all’ argument is set to true, then it will show all of the pages instead of a short list of the pages near the current page. By default, the ‘show_all’ is set to false and controlled by the ‘end_size’ and ‘mid_size’ arguments. The ‘end_size’ argument is how many numbers on either the start and the end list edges, by default is 1. The ‘mid_size’ argument is how many numbers to either side of current page, but not including current page.

It is possible to add query vars to the link by using the ‘add_args’ argument and see add_query_arg() for more information.

The ‘before_page_number’ and ‘after_page_number’ arguments allow users to augment the links themselves. Typically this might be to add context to the numbered links so that screen reader users understand what the links are for. The text strings are added before and after the page number – within the anchor tag.


Parameters Parameters

$args

(string|array) (Optional) Array or string of arguments for generating paginated links for archives.

  • 'base'
    (string) Base of the paginated url.
  • 'format'
    (string) Format for the pagination structure.
  • 'total'
    (int) The total amount of pages. Default is the value WP_Query's max_num_pages or 1.
  • 'current'
    (int) The current page number. Default is 'paged' query var or 1.
  • 'show_all'
    (bool) Whether to show all pages. Default false.
  • 'end_size'
    (int) How many numbers on either the start and the end list edges. Default 1.
  • 'mid_size'
    (int) How many numbers to either side of the current pages. Default 2.
  • 'prev_next'
    (bool) Whether to include the previous and next links in the list. Default true.
  • 'prev_text'
    (bool) The previous page text. Default '« Previous'.
  • 'next_text'
    (bool) The next page text. Default 'Next »'.
  • 'type'
    (string) Controls format of the returned value. Possible values are 'plain', 'array' and 'list'. Default is 'plain'.
  • 'add_args'
    (array) An array of query args to add. Default false.
  • 'add_fragment'
    (string) A string to append to each link.
  • 'before_page_number'
    (string) A string to appear before the page number.
  • 'after_page_number'
    (string) A string to append after the page number.

Default value: ''


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Return Return

(array|string|void) String of page links or array of page links.


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Source Source

File: wp-includes/general-template.php

function paginate_links( $args = '' ) {
	global $wp_query, $wp_rewrite;

	// Setting up default values based on the current URL.
	$pagenum_link = html_entity_decode( get_pagenum_link() );
	$url_parts    = explode( '?', $pagenum_link );

	// Get max pages and current page out of the current query, if available.
	$total   = isset( $wp_query->max_num_pages ) ? $wp_query->max_num_pages : 1;
	$current = get_query_var( 'paged' ) ? intval( get_query_var( 'paged' ) ) : 1;

	// Append the format placeholder to the base URL.
	$pagenum_link = trailingslashit( $url_parts[0] ) . '%_%';

	// URL base depends on permalink settings.
	$format  = $wp_rewrite->using_index_permalinks() && ! strpos( $pagenum_link, 'index.php' ) ? 'index.php/' : '';
	$format .= $wp_rewrite->using_permalinks() ? user_trailingslashit( $wp_rewrite->pagination_base . '/%#%', 'paged' ) : '?paged=%#%';

	$defaults = array(
		'base' => $pagenum_link, // http://example.com/all_posts.php%_% : %_% is replaced by format (below)
		'format' => $format, // ?page=%#% : %#% is replaced by the page number
		'total' => $total,
		'current' => $current,
		'show_all' => false,
		'prev_next' => true,
		'prev_text' => __('« Previous'),
		'next_text' => __('Next »'),
		'end_size' => 1,
		'mid_size' => 2,
		'type' => 'plain',
		'add_args' => array(), // array of query args to add
		'add_fragment' => '',
		'before_page_number' => '',
		'after_page_number' => ''
	);

	$args = wp_parse_args( $args, $defaults );

	if ( ! is_array( $args['add_args'] ) ) {
		$args['add_args'] = array();
	}

	// Merge additional query vars found in the original URL into 'add_args' array.
	if ( isset( $url_parts[1] ) ) {
		// Find the format argument.
		$format = explode( '?', str_replace( '%_%', $args['format'], $args['base'] ) );
		$format_query = isset( $format[1] ) ? $format[1] : '';
		wp_parse_str( $format_query, $format_args );

		// Find the query args of the requested URL.
		wp_parse_str( $url_parts[1], $url_query_args );

		// Remove the format argument from the array of query arguments, to avoid overwriting custom format.
		foreach ( $format_args as $format_arg => $format_arg_value ) {
			unset( $url_query_args[ $format_arg ] );
		}

		$args['add_args'] = array_merge( $args['add_args'], urlencode_deep( $url_query_args ) );
	}

	// Who knows what else people pass in $args
	$total = (int) $args['total'];
	if ( $total < 2 ) {
		return;
	}
	$current  = (int) $args['current'];
	$end_size = (int) $args['end_size']; // Out of bounds?  Make it the default.
	if ( $end_size < 1 ) {
		$end_size = 1;
	}
	$mid_size = (int) $args['mid_size'];
	if ( $mid_size < 0 ) {
		$mid_size = 2;
	}
	$add_args = $args['add_args'];
	$r = '';
	$page_links = array();
	$dots = false;

	if ( $args['prev_next'] && $current && 1 < $current ) :
		$link = str_replace( '%_%', 2 == $current ? '' : $args['format'], $args['base'] );
		$link = str_replace( '%#%', $current - 1, $link );
		if ( $add_args )
			$link = add_query_arg( $add_args, $link );
		$link .= $args['add_fragment'];

		/**
		 * Filters the paginated links for the given archive pages.
		 *
		 * @since 3.0.0
		 *
		 * @param string $link The paginated link URL.
		 */
		$page_links[] = '<a class="prev page-numbers" href="' . esc_url( apply_filters( 'paginate_links', $link ) ) . '">' . $args['prev_text'] . '</a>';
	endif;
	for ( $n = 1; $n <= $total; $n++ ) :
		if ( $n == $current ) :
			$page_links[] = "<span class='page-numbers current'>" . $args['before_page_number'] . number_format_i18n( $n ) . $args['after_page_number'] . "</span>";
			$dots = true;
		else :
			if ( $args['show_all'] || ( $n <= $end_size || ( $current && $n >= $current - $mid_size && $n <= $current + $mid_size ) || $n > $total - $end_size ) ) :
				$link = str_replace( '%_%', 1 == $n ? '' : $args['format'], $args['base'] );
				$link = str_replace( '%#%', $n, $link );
				if ( $add_args )
					$link = add_query_arg( $add_args, $link );
				$link .= $args['add_fragment'];

				/** This filter is documented in wp-includes/general-template.php */
				$page_links[] = "<a class='page-numbers' href='" . esc_url( apply_filters( 'paginate_links', $link ) ) . "'>" . $args['before_page_number'] . number_format_i18n( $n ) . $args['after_page_number'] . "</a>";
				$dots = true;
			elseif ( $dots && ! $args['show_all'] ) :
				$page_links[] = '<span class="page-numbers dots">' . __( '&hellip;' ) . '</span>';
				$dots = false;
			endif;
		endif;
	endfor;
	if ( $args['prev_next'] && $current && $current < $total ) :
		$link = str_replace( '%_%', $args['format'], $args['base'] );
		$link = str_replace( '%#%', $current + 1, $link );
		if ( $add_args )
			$link = add_query_arg( $add_args, $link );
		$link .= $args['add_fragment'];

		/** This filter is documented in wp-includes/general-template.php */
		$page_links[] = '<a class="next page-numbers" href="' . esc_url( apply_filters( 'paginate_links', $link ) ) . '">' . $args['next_text'] . '</a>';
	endif;
	switch ( $args['type'] ) {
		case 'array' :
			return $page_links;

		case 'list' :
			$r .= "<ul class='page-numbers'>\n\t<li>";
			$r .= join("</li>\n\t<li>", $page_links);
			$r .= "</li>\n</ul>\n";
			break;

		default :
			$r = join("\n", $page_links);
			break;
	}
	return $r;
}

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Changelog Changelog

Changelog
Version Description
2.1.0 Introduced.


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User Contributed Notes User Contributed Notes

  1. Skip to note content
    Contributed by Codex

    Example With a Custom Query
    When querying a loop with new WP_Query set the total parameter to the max_num_pages property of the WP_Query object.

    Example of a custom query:

    <?php
    //Protect against arbitrary paged values
    $paged = ( get_query_var( 'paged' ) ) ? absint( get_query_var( 'paged' ) ) : 1;
    
    $args = array(
    	'posts_per_page' => 5,
    	'category_name' => 'gallery',
    	'paged' => $paged,
    );
    
    $the_query = new WP_Query( $args );
    ?>
    <!-- the loop etc.. -->
    

    Example of paginate_links parameters adapted to the custom query above:

    <?php
    $big = 999999999; // need an unlikely integer
    
    echo paginate_links( array(
    	'base' => str_replace( $big, '%#%', esc_url( get_pagenum_link( $big ) ) ),
    	'format' => '?paged=%#%',
    	'current' => max( 1, get_query_var('paged') ),
    	'total' => $the_query->max_num_pages
    ) );
    ?>
    
  2. Skip to note content
    Contributed by Codex

    Improving Accessibility
    To add context to the numbered links to ensure that screen reader users understand what the links are for:

    <?php
    global $wp_query;
    
    $big = 999999999; // need an unlikely integer
    $translated = __( 'Page', 'mytextdomain' ); // Supply translatable string
    
    echo paginate_links( array(
    	'base' => str_replace( $big, '%#%', esc_url( get_pagenum_link( $big ) ) ),
    	'format' => '?paged=%#%',
    	'current' => max( 1, get_query_var('paged') ),
    	'total' => $wp_query->max_num_pages,
            'before_page_number' => '<span class="screen-reader-text">'.$translated.' </span>'
    ) );
    ?>
    
  3. Skip to note content
    Contributed by Codex

    Basic Example
    To add pagination to your search results and archives, you can use the following example:

    <?php
    global $wp_query;
    
    $big = 999999999; // need an unlikely integer
    
    echo paginate_links( array(
    	'base' => str_replace( $big, '%#%', esc_url( get_pagenum_link( $big ) ) ),
    	'format' => '?paged=%#%',
    	'current' => max( 1, get_query_var('paged') ),
    	'total' => $wp_query->max_num_pages
    ) );
    ?>
    

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