WP_User_Query

Core class used for querying users.


Description Description

See also See also


Top ↑

More Information More Information

This class allows querying WordPress database tables ‘wp_users‘ and ‘wp_usermeta‘.

Top ↑

Usage Usage

<?php
$args = array(
	.
	.
	.
);

// The Query
$user_query = new WP_User_Query( $args );

// User Loop
if ( ! empty( $user_query->get_results() ) ) {
	foreach ( $user_query->get_results() as $user ) {
		echo '<p>' . $user->display_name . '</p>';
	}
} else {
	echo 'No users found.';
}
?>

Top ↑

Properties Properties

$query_vars
An associative array containing the query variables and their respective values, after parsing.
$results
An array containing a list of found users.
$total_users
Total number of found users for the current query.
$query_fields
SQL clauses for the return fields.
$query_from
SQL clauses
$query_where
SQL clauses
$query_orderby
SQL clauses for sorting retrieved users.
$query_limit
SQL clauses for limiting retrieved users.

Top ↑

Parameters Parameters

Top ↑

User Role Parameter User Role Parameter

Show users associated with certain role.

  • role (string / array) – use User Role. An array or a comma-separated list of role names that users must match to be included in results. Note that this is an inclusive list: users must match *each* role. Default empty.
  • role__in (array) – An array of role names. Matched users must have at least one of these roles. Default empty array. (since Version 4.4).
  • role__not_in (array) – An array of role names to exclude. Users matching one or more of these roles will not be included in results. Default empty array. (since Version 4.4).

Display Administrator role users

$user_query = new WP_User_Query( array( 'role' => 'Administrator' ) );

Display Subscriber role users

$user_query = new WP_User_Query( array( 'role' => 'Subscriber' ) );

Display all users except Subscriber role users

$user_query = new WP_User_Query( array( 'role__not_in' => 'Subscriber' ) );

Top ↑

Include & Exclude Parameters Include & Exclude Parameters

Show specific users.

  • include (array) – List of users to be included.
  • exclude (array) – List of users to be excluded.

Display specific users list

$user_query = new WP_User_Query( array( 'include' => array( 1, 2, 3 ) ) );

Display all users except a specific list of users

$user_query = new WP_User_Query( array( 'exclude' => array( 4, 5, 6 ) ) );

Top ↑

Blog Parameter Blog Parameter

Show users associated with certain blog on the network.

  • blog_id (int) – The blog id on a multisite environment. Defaults to the current blog id.

Display users from blog 33

$user_query = new WP_User_Query( array( 'blog_id' => 33 ) );

Top ↑

Search Parameters Search Parameters

Search users.

  • search (string) – Searches for possible string matches on columns. Use of the * wildcard before and/or after the string will match on columns starting with*, *ending with, or *containing* the string you enter.
  • search_columns (array) – List of database table columns to matches the search string across multiple columns.
    • ID‘ – Search by user id.
    • user_login‘ – Search by user login.
    • user_nicename‘ – Search by user nicename.
    • user_email‘ – Search by user email.
    • user_url‘ – Search by user url.

We can use the user_search_columns filter to modify the search columns.

Display users based on a keyword search

$user_query = new WP_User_Query( array( 'search' => 'Rami' ) );

Display users based on a keyword search, only on login and email columns

$args = array(
	'search'         => 'Rami',
	'search_columns' => array( 'user_login', 'user_email' )
);
$user_query = new WP_User_Query( $args );

Top ↑

Pagination Parameters Pagination Parameters

Limit retrieved Users.

  • number (int) – The maximum returned number of results (needed in pagination).
  • offset (int) – Offset the returned results (needed in pagination).
  • paged (int) – When used with number, defines the page of results to return. Default 1. (since Version 4.4).

Display 10 users

$user_query = new WP_User_Query( array( 'number' => 10 ) );

Display 5 users starting from 25

$user_query = new WP_User_Query( array( 'number' => 5, 'offset' => 25 ) );

Top ↑

Order & Orderby Parameters Order & Orderby Parameters

Sort retrieved Users.

  • orderby (string) – Sort retrieved users by parameter. Defaults to ‘login’.
    • ID‘ – Order by user id.
    • display_name‘ – Order by user display name.
    • name‘ / ‘user_name‘ – Order by user name.
    • include‘ – Order by the included list of user_ids (requires the include parameter) (since Version 4.1).
    • login‘ / ‘user_login‘ – Order by user login.
    • nicename‘ / ‘user_nicename‘ – Order by user nicename.
    • email‘ / ‘user_email‘ – Order by user email.
    • url‘ / ‘user_url‘ – Order by user url.
    • registered‘ / ‘user_registered‘ – Order by user registered date.
    • post_count‘ – Order by user post count.
    • meta_value‘ – Note that a ‘meta_key=keyname’ must also be present in the query (available with Version 3.7).
    • meta_value_num‘ – Note that a ‘meta_key=keyname’ must also be present in the query (available with Version 4.2).
  • order (string) – Designates the ascending or descending order of the ‘orderby‘ parameter. Defaults to ‘ASC’.
    • ASC‘ – ascending order from lowest to highest values (1, 2, 3; a, b, c).
    • DESC‘ – descending order from highest to lowest values (3, 2, 1; c, b, a).

Display users sorted by Post Count, Descending order

$user_query = new WP_User_Query( array ( 'orderby' => 'post_count', 'order' => 'DESC' ) );

Display users sorted by registered, Ascending order

$user_query = new WP_User_Query( array ( 'orderby' => 'registered', 'order' => 'ASC' ) );

Top ↑

Date Parameters Date Parameters

Date queries are handled through to the WP_Date_Query object and are applied to the user_registered field.

Available since version 4.1.

  • date_query (array) – See the documentation for the WP_Query class.

Find users that registered during the last 12 hours:

$args = array(
    'date_query' => array( 
        array( 'after' => '12 hours ago', 'inclusive' => true )  
    )
);
$user_query = new WP_User_Query( $args );

Top ↑

Custom Field Parameters Custom Field Parameters

Show users associated with a certain custom field.

The WP_Meta_Query class is used to parse this part of the query since 3.2.0, so check the docs for that class for the full, up to date list of arguments.

  • meta_key (string) – Custom field key.
  • meta_value (string) – Custom field value.
  • meta_compare (string) – Operator to test the ‘meta_value‘. See 'compare' below.
  • meta_query (array) – Custom field parameters (available with Version 3.5).
    • key (string) – Custom field key.
    • value (string|array) – Custom field value (Note: Array support is limited to a compare value of ‘IN’, ‘NOT IN’, ‘BETWEEN’, ‘NOT BETWEEN’, ‘EXISTS’ or ‘NOT EXISTS’)
    • compare (string) – Operator to test. Possible values are ‘=’, ‘!=’, ‘>’, ‘>=’, ‘<‘, ‘<=’, ‘LIKE’, ‘NOT LIKE’, ‘IN’, ‘NOT IN’, ‘BETWEEN’, ‘NOT BETWEEN’, ‘EXISTS’, and ‘NOT EXISTS’ ; ‘REGEXP’, ‘NOT REGEXP’ and ‘RLIKE’ were added in WordPress 3.7. Default value is ‘=’.
      Note: Currently 'NOT EXISTS' does not always work as intended if 'relation' is 'OR' when, (1) using the 'role' parameter on single site installs, or (2) for any query on multisite. See ticket #23849.
      Note 2: with ‘LIKE’ the value parameter is change to ‘%<value>%’. So the string is searched anywhere in the custom field value. If value parameter contain a ‘%’ it is escaped. So it bans to search a string beginning by some characters, for exemple… To construct this query you must use ‘REGEXP’ with a regular expression in value parameter (ex : ‘^n.*’ matchs all values that beginning by “n” or “N”).
    • type (string) – Custom field type. Possible values are ‘NUMERIC’, ‘BINARY’, ‘CHAR’, ‘DATE’, ‘DATETIME’, ‘DECIMAL’, ‘SIGNED’, ‘TIME’, ‘UNSIGNED’. Default value is ‘CHAR’. You can also specify precision and scale for the ‘DECIMAL’ and ‘NUMERIC’ types (for example, ‘DECIMAL(10,5)’ or ‘NUMERIC(10)’ are valid).

Display users from Israel

$user_query = new WP_User_Query( array( 'meta_key' => 'country', 'meta_value' => 'Israel' ) );

Display users under 30 years old

$user_query = new WP_User_Query( array( 'meta_key' => 'age', 'meta_value' => '30', 'meta_compare' => '<' ) );

Multiple custom user fields handling

$args = array(
	'meta_query' => array(
		'relation' => 'OR',
			array(
				'key'     => 'country',
				'value'   => 'Israel',
	 			'compare' => '='
			),
			array(
				'key'     => 'age',
				'value'   => array( 20, 30 ),
				'type'    => 'numeric',
				'compare' => 'BETWEEN'
			)
	)
 );
$user_query = new WP_User_Query( $args );

Top ↑

Who Parameter Who Parameter

Which users?

  • who (string) – Which users to query. Currently only ‘authors’ is supported. Default is all users.

Display only authors

$user_query = new WP_User_Query( array( 'who' => 'authors' ) );

Equals to:

$args = array(
	'meta_key'     => 'user_level',
	'meta_value'   => '0',
	'meta_compare' => '!=',
	'blog_id'      => 0
)
$user_query = new WP_User_Query( $args );

Top ↑

Total Count Parameter Total Count Parameter

  • count_total (boolean) – Whether to count the total number of users found. When true (default), the total number of results for the query can be retrieved using the get_total() method. If you don’t need the total number of results, set this to false.

Top ↑

Has Published Posts Parameter Has Published Posts Parameter

  • has_published_posts (boolean / array) – Pass an array of post types to filter results to users who have published posts in those post types. true is an alias for all public post types. Default is null. Since Version 4.3.

Top ↑

Return Fields Parameter Return Fields Parameter

Set return values.

  • fields (string|array) – Which fields to return. Defaults to all.
    • ID‘ – Return an array of user id’s.
    • display_name‘ – Return an array of user display names.
    • login‘ / ‘user_login‘ – Return an array of user login names.
    • nicename‘ / ‘user_nicename‘ – Return an array of user nicenames.
    • email‘ / ‘user_email‘ – Return an array of user emails.
    • url‘ / ‘user_url‘ – Return an array of user urls.
    • registered‘ / ‘user_registered‘ – Return an array of user registered dates.
    • all (default) or all_with_meta‘ – Returns an array of WP_User objects. Must pass an array to subset fields returned. *’all_with_meta’ currently returns the same fields as ‘all’ which does not include user fields stored in wp_usermeta. You must create a second query to get the user meta fields by ID or use the __get PHP magic method to get the values of these fields.

Return an array of WP_User object

$user_query = new WP_User_Query( array( 'role' => 'editor', 'fields' => 'all' ) );

Return List all blog editors, return limited fields in resulting row objects:

$user_fields = array( 'user_login', 'user_nicename', 'user_email', 'user_url' );
$user_query = new WP_User_Query( array( 'role' => 'editor', 'fields' => $user_fields ) );

Top ↑

Return Values Return Values

(Array)
An array of IDs, stdClass objects, or WP_User objects, depending on the value of the ‘fields‘ parameter.

  • If ‘fields‘ is set to ‘all’ (default), or ‘all_with_meta’, it will return an array of WP_User objects (does not include related user meta fields even with ‘all_with_meta’ set) .
  • If ‘fields‘ is set to an array of wp_users table fields, it will return an array of stdClass objects with only those fields.
  • If ‘fields‘ is set to any individual wp_users table field, an array of IDs will be returned.

Top ↑

Filters Filters

  • found_users_query – Alters SQL ‘SELECT FOUND_ROWS()’ clause to the query that returns the count total.

Top ↑

Examples Examples

Here is a working example if you want to search a user by first_name / last_name / description and the default search_columns.

// The search term
$search_term = 'Ross';

// WP_User_Query arguments
$args = array (
    'role'       => 'reporter',
    'order'      => 'ASC',
    'orderby'    => 'display_name',
    'search'     => '*' . esc_attr( $search_term ) . '*',
    'meta_query' => array(
        'relation' => 'OR',
        array(
            'key'     => 'first_name',
            'value'   => $search_term,
            'compare' => 'LIKE'
        ),
        array(
            'key'     => 'last_name',
            'value'   => $search_term,
            'compare' => 'LIKE'
        ),
        array(
            'key'     => 'description',
            'value'   => $search_term ,
            'compare' => 'LIKE'
        )
    )
);

// Create the WP_User_Query object
$wp_user_query = new WP_User_Query( $args );

// Get the results
$authors = $wp_user_query->get_results();

// Check for results
if ( ! empty( $authors ) ) {
    echo '<ul>';
    // loop through each author
    foreach ( $authors as $author ) {
        // get all the user's data
        $author_info = get_userdata( $author->ID );
        echo '<li>' . $author_info->first_name . ' ' . $author_info->last_name . '</li>';
    }
    echo '</ul>';
} else {
    echo 'No authors found';
}

Top ↑

Source Source

File: wp-includes/class-wp-user-query.php

class WP_User_Query {

	/**
	 * Query vars, after parsing
	 *
	 * @since 3.5.0
	 * @var array
	 */
	public $query_vars = array();

	/**
	 * List of found user IDs.
	 *
	 * @since 3.1.0
	 * @var array
	 */
	private $results;

	/**
	 * Total number of found users for the current query
	 *
	 * @since 3.1.0
	 * @var int
	 */
	private $total_users = 0;

	/**
	 * Metadata query container.
	 *
	 * @since 4.2.0
	 * @var WP_Meta_Query
	 */
	public $meta_query = false;

	/**
	 * The SQL query used to fetch matching users.
	 *
	 * @since 4.4.0
	 * @var string
	 */
	public $request;

	private $compat_fields = array( 'results', 'total_users' );

	// SQL clauses.
	public $query_fields;
	public $query_from;
	public $query_where;
	public $query_orderby;
	public $query_limit;

	/**
	 * PHP5 constructor.
	 *
	 * @since 3.1.0
	 *
	 * @param null|string|array $query Optional. The query variables.
	 */
	public function __construct( $query = null ) {
		if ( ! empty( $query ) ) {
			$this->prepare_query( $query );
			$this->query();
		}
	}

	/**
	 * Fills in missing query variables with default values.
	 *
	 * @since 4.4.0
	 *
	 * @param array $args Query vars, as passed to `WP_User_Query`.
	 * @return array Complete query variables with undefined ones filled in with defaults.
	 */
	public static function fill_query_vars( $args ) {
		$defaults = array(
			'blog_id'             => get_current_blog_id(),
			'role'                => '',
			'role__in'            => array(),
			'role__not_in'        => array(),
			'meta_key'            => '',
			'meta_value'          => '',
			'meta_compare'        => '',
			'include'             => array(),
			'exclude'             => array(),
			'search'              => '',
			'search_columns'      => array(),
			'orderby'             => 'login',
			'order'               => 'ASC',
			'offset'              => '',
			'number'              => '',
			'paged'               => 1,
			'count_total'         => true,
			'fields'              => 'all',
			'who'                 => '',
			'has_published_posts' => null,
			'nicename'            => '',
			'nicename__in'        => array(),
			'nicename__not_in'    => array(),
			'login'               => '',
			'login__in'           => array(),
			'login__not_in'       => array(),
		);

		return wp_parse_args( $args, $defaults );
	}

	/**
	 * Prepare the query variables.
	 *
	 * @since 3.1.0
	 * @since 4.1.0 Added the ability to order by the `include` value.
	 * @since 4.2.0 Added 'meta_value_num' support for `$orderby` parameter. Added multi-dimensional array syntax
	 *              for `$orderby` parameter.
	 * @since 4.3.0 Added 'has_published_posts' parameter.
	 * @since 4.4.0 Added 'paged', 'role__in', and 'role__not_in' parameters. The 'role' parameter was updated to
	 *              permit an array or comma-separated list of values. The 'number' parameter was updated to support
	 *              querying for all users with using -1.
	 * @since 4.7.0 Added 'nicename', 'nicename__in', 'nicename__not_in', 'login', 'login__in',
	 *              and 'login__not_in' parameters.
	 *
	 * @global wpdb $wpdb WordPress database abstraction object.
	 * @global int  $blog_id
	 *
	 * @param string|array $query {
	 *     Optional. Array or string of Query parameters.
	 *
	 *     @type int          $blog_id             The site ID. Default is the current site.
	 *     @type string|array $role                An array or a comma-separated list of role names that users must match
	 *                                             to be included in results. Note that this is an inclusive list: users
	 *                                             must match *each* role. Default empty.
	 *     @type array        $role__in            An array of role names. Matched users must have at least one of these
	 *                                             roles. Default empty array.
	 *     @type array        $role__not_in        An array of role names to exclude. Users matching one or more of these
	 *                                             roles will not be included in results. Default empty array.
	 *     @type string       $meta_key            User meta key. Default empty.
	 *     @type string       $meta_value          User meta value. Default empty.
	 *     @type string       $meta_compare        Comparison operator to test the `$meta_value`. Accepts '=', '!=',
	 *                                             '>', '>=', '<', '<=', 'LIKE', 'NOT LIKE', 'IN', 'NOT IN',
	 *                                             'BETWEEN', 'NOT BETWEEN', 'EXISTS', 'NOT EXISTS', 'REGEXP',
	 *                                             'NOT REGEXP', or 'RLIKE'. Default '='.
	 *     @type array        $include             An array of user IDs to include. Default empty array.
	 *     @type array        $exclude             An array of user IDs to exclude. Default empty array.
	 *     @type string       $search              Search keyword. Searches for possible string matches on columns.
	 *                                             When `$search_columns` is left empty, it tries to determine which
	 *                                             column to search in based on search string. Default empty.
	 *     @type array        $search_columns      Array of column names to be searched. Accepts 'ID', 'user_login',
	 *                                             'user_email', 'user_url', 'user_nicename', 'display_name'.
	 *                                             Default empty array.
	 *     @type string|array $orderby             Field(s) to sort the retrieved users by. May be a single value,
	 *                                             an array of values, or a multi-dimensional array with fields as
	 *                                             keys and orders ('ASC' or 'DESC') as values. Accepted values are
	 *                                             'ID', 'display_name' (or 'name'), 'include', 'user_login'
	 *                                             (or 'login'), 'login__in', 'user_nicename' (or 'nicename'),
	 *                                             'nicename__in', 'user_email (or 'email'), 'user_url' (or 'url'),
	 *                                             'user_registered' (or 'registered'), 'post_count', 'meta_value',
	 *                                             'meta_value_num', the value of `$meta_key`, or an array key of
	 *                                             `$meta_query`. To use 'meta_value' or 'meta_value_num', `$meta_key`
	 *                                             must be also be defined. Default 'user_login'.
	 *     @type string       $order               Designates ascending or descending order of users. Order values
	 *                                             passed as part of an `$orderby` array take precedence over this
	 *                                             parameter. Accepts 'ASC', 'DESC'. Default 'ASC'.
	 *     @type int          $offset              Number of users to offset in retrieved results. Can be used in
	 *                                             conjunction with pagination. Default 0.
	 *     @type int          $number              Number of users to limit the query for. Can be used in
	 *                                             conjunction with pagination. Value -1 (all) is supported, but
	 *                                             should be used with caution on larger sites.
	 *                                             Default -1 (all users).
	 *     @type int          $paged               When used with number, defines the page of results to return.
	 *                                             Default 1.
	 *     @type bool         $count_total         Whether to count the total number of users found. If pagination
	 *                                             is not needed, setting this to false can improve performance.
	 *                                             Default true.
	 *     @type string|array $fields              Which fields to return. Single or all fields (string), or array
	 *                                             of fields. Accepts 'ID', 'display_name', 'user_login',
	 *                                             'user_nicename', 'user_email', 'user_url', 'user_registered'.
	 *                                             Use 'all' for all fields and 'all_with_meta' to include
	 *                                             meta fields. Default 'all'.
	 *     @type string       $who                 Type of users to query. Accepts 'authors'.
	 *                                             Default empty (all users).
	 *     @type bool|array   $has_published_posts Pass an array of post types to filter results to users who have
	 *                                             published posts in those post types. `true` is an alias for all
	 *                                             public post types.
	 *     @type string       $nicename            The user nicename. Default empty.
	 *     @type array        $nicename__in        An array of nicenames to include. Users matching one of these
	 *                                             nicenames will be included in results. Default empty array.
	 *     @type array        $nicename__not_in    An array of nicenames to exclude. Users matching one of these
	 *                                             nicenames will not be included in results. Default empty array.
	 *     @type string       $login               The user login. Default empty.
	 *     @type array        $login__in           An array of logins to include. Users matching one of these
	 *                                             logins will be included in results. Default empty array.
	 *     @type array        $login__not_in       An array of logins to exclude. Users matching one of these
	 *                                             logins will not be included in results. Default empty array.
	 * }
	 */
	public function prepare_query( $query = array() ) {
		global $wpdb;

		if ( empty( $this->query_vars ) || ! empty( $query ) ) {
			$this->query_limit = null;
			$this->query_vars  = $this->fill_query_vars( $query );
		}

		/**
		 * Fires before the WP_User_Query has been parsed.
		 *
		 * The passed WP_User_Query object contains the query variables, not
		 * yet passed into SQL.
		 *
		 * @since 4.0.0
		 *
		 * @param WP_User_Query $this The current WP_User_Query instance,
		 *                            passed by reference.
		 */
		do_action( 'pre_get_users', $this );

		// Ensure that query vars are filled after 'pre_get_users'.
		$qv =& $this->query_vars;
		$qv = $this->fill_query_vars( $qv );

		if ( is_array( $qv['fields'] ) ) {
			$qv['fields'] = array_unique( $qv['fields'] );

			$this->query_fields = array();
			foreach ( $qv['fields'] as $field ) {
				$field                = 'ID' === $field ? 'ID' : sanitize_key( $field );
				$this->query_fields[] = "$wpdb->users.$field";
			}
			$this->query_fields = implode( ',', $this->query_fields );
		} elseif ( 'all' === $qv['fields'] ) {
			$this->query_fields = "$wpdb->users.*";
		} else {
			$this->query_fields = "$wpdb->users.ID";
		}

		if ( isset( $qv['count_total'] ) && $qv['count_total'] ) {
			$this->query_fields = 'SQL_CALC_FOUND_ROWS ' . $this->query_fields;
		}

		$this->query_from  = "FROM $wpdb->users";
		$this->query_where = 'WHERE 1=1';

		// Parse and sanitize 'include', for use by 'orderby' as well as 'include' below.
		if ( ! empty( $qv['include'] ) ) {
			$include = wp_parse_id_list( $qv['include'] );
		} else {
			$include = false;
		}

		$blog_id = 0;
		if ( isset( $qv['blog_id'] ) ) {
			$blog_id = absint( $qv['blog_id'] );
		}

		if ( $qv['has_published_posts'] && $blog_id ) {
			if ( true === $qv['has_published_posts'] ) {
				$post_types = get_post_types( array( 'public' => true ) );
			} else {
				$post_types = (array) $qv['has_published_posts'];
			}

			foreach ( $post_types as &$post_type ) {
				$post_type = $wpdb->prepare( '%s', $post_type );
			}

			$posts_table        = $wpdb->get_blog_prefix( $blog_id ) . 'posts';
			$this->query_where .= " AND $wpdb->users.ID IN ( SELECT DISTINCT $posts_table.post_author FROM $posts_table WHERE $posts_table.post_status = 'publish' AND $posts_table.post_type IN ( " . join( ', ', $post_types ) . ' ) )';
		}

		// nicename
		if ( '' !== $qv['nicename'] ) {
			$this->query_where .= $wpdb->prepare( ' AND user_nicename = %s', $qv['nicename'] );
		}

		if ( ! empty( $qv['nicename__in'] ) ) {
			$sanitized_nicename__in = array_map( 'esc_sql', $qv['nicename__in'] );
			$nicename__in           = implode( "','", $sanitized_nicename__in );
			$this->query_where     .= " AND user_nicename IN ( '$nicename__in' )";
		}

		if ( ! empty( $qv['nicename__not_in'] ) ) {
			$sanitized_nicename__not_in = array_map( 'esc_sql', $qv['nicename__not_in'] );
			$nicename__not_in           = implode( "','", $sanitized_nicename__not_in );
			$this->query_where         .= " AND user_nicename NOT IN ( '$nicename__not_in' )";
		}

		// login
		if ( '' !== $qv['login'] ) {
			$this->query_where .= $wpdb->prepare( ' AND user_login = %s', $qv['login'] );
		}

		if ( ! empty( $qv['login__in'] ) ) {
			$sanitized_login__in = array_map( 'esc_sql', $qv['login__in'] );
			$login__in           = implode( "','", $sanitized_login__in );
			$this->query_where  .= " AND user_login IN ( '$login__in' )";
		}

		if ( ! empty( $qv['login__not_in'] ) ) {
			$sanitized_login__not_in = array_map( 'esc_sql', $qv['login__not_in'] );
			$login__not_in           = implode( "','", $sanitized_login__not_in );
			$this->query_where      .= " AND user_login NOT IN ( '$login__not_in' )";
		}

		// Meta query.
		$this->meta_query = new WP_Meta_Query();
		$this->meta_query->parse_query_vars( $qv );

		if ( isset( $qv['who'] ) && 'authors' === $qv['who'] && $blog_id ) {
			$who_query = array(
				'key'     => $wpdb->get_blog_prefix( $blog_id ) . 'user_level',
				'value'   => 0,
				'compare' => '!=',
			);

			// Prevent extra meta query.
			$qv['blog_id'] = 0;
			$blog_id       = 0;

			if ( empty( $this->meta_query->queries ) ) {
				$this->meta_query->queries = array( $who_query );
			} else {
				// Append the cap query to the original queries and reparse the query.
				$this->meta_query->queries = array(
					'relation' => 'AND',
					array( $this->meta_query->queries, $who_query ),
				);
			}

			$this->meta_query->parse_query_vars( $this->meta_query->queries );
		}

		$roles = array();
		if ( isset( $qv['role'] ) ) {
			if ( is_array( $qv['role'] ) ) {
				$roles = $qv['role'];
			} elseif ( is_string( $qv['role'] ) && ! empty( $qv['role'] ) ) {
				$roles = array_map( 'trim', explode( ',', $qv['role'] ) );
			}
		}

		$role__in = array();
		if ( isset( $qv['role__in'] ) ) {
			$role__in = (array) $qv['role__in'];
		}

		$role__not_in = array();
		if ( isset( $qv['role__not_in'] ) ) {
			$role__not_in = (array) $qv['role__not_in'];
		}

		if ( $blog_id && ( ! empty( $roles ) || ! empty( $role__in ) || ! empty( $role__not_in ) || is_multisite() ) ) {
			$role_queries = array();

			$roles_clauses = array( 'relation' => 'AND' );
			if ( ! empty( $roles ) ) {
				foreach ( $roles as $role ) {
					$roles_clauses[] = array(
						'key'     => $wpdb->get_blog_prefix( $blog_id ) . 'capabilities',
						'value'   => '"' . $role . '"',
						'compare' => 'LIKE',
					);
				}

				$role_queries[] = $roles_clauses;
			}

			$role__in_clauses = array( 'relation' => 'OR' );
			if ( ! empty( $role__in ) ) {
				foreach ( $role__in as $role ) {
					$role__in_clauses[] = array(
						'key'     => $wpdb->get_blog_prefix( $blog_id ) . 'capabilities',
						'value'   => '"' . $role . '"',
						'compare' => 'LIKE',
					);
				}

				$role_queries[] = $role__in_clauses;
			}

			$role__not_in_clauses = array( 'relation' => 'AND' );
			if ( ! empty( $role__not_in ) ) {
				foreach ( $role__not_in as $role ) {
					$role__not_in_clauses[] = array(
						'key'     => $wpdb->get_blog_prefix( $blog_id ) . 'capabilities',
						'value'   => '"' . $role . '"',
						'compare' => 'NOT LIKE',
					);
				}

				$role_queries[] = $role__not_in_clauses;
			}

			// If there are no specific roles named, make sure the user is a member of the site.
			if ( empty( $role_queries ) ) {
				$role_queries[] = array(
					'key'     => $wpdb->get_blog_prefix( $blog_id ) . 'capabilities',
					'compare' => 'EXISTS',
				);
			}

			// Specify that role queries should be joined with AND.
			$role_queries['relation'] = 'AND';

			if ( empty( $this->meta_query->queries ) ) {
				$this->meta_query->queries = $role_queries;
			} else {
				// Append the cap query to the original queries and reparse the query.
				$this->meta_query->queries = array(
					'relation' => 'AND',
					array( $this->meta_query->queries, $role_queries ),
				);
			}

			$this->meta_query->parse_query_vars( $this->meta_query->queries );
		}

		if ( ! empty( $this->meta_query->queries ) ) {
			$clauses            = $this->meta_query->get_sql( 'user', $wpdb->users, 'ID', $this );
			$this->query_from  .= $clauses['join'];
			$this->query_where .= $clauses['where'];

			if ( $this->meta_query->has_or_relation() ) {
				$this->query_fields = 'DISTINCT ' . $this->query_fields;
			}
		}

		// Sorting.
		$qv['order'] = isset( $qv['order'] ) ? strtoupper( $qv['order'] ) : '';
		$order       = $this->parse_order( $qv['order'] );

		if ( empty( $qv['orderby'] ) ) {
			// Default order is by 'user_login'.
			$ordersby = array( 'user_login' => $order );
		} elseif ( is_array( $qv['orderby'] ) ) {
			$ordersby = $qv['orderby'];
		} else {
			// 'orderby' values may be a comma- or space-separated list.
			$ordersby = preg_split( '/[,\s]+/', $qv['orderby'] );
		}

		$orderby_array = array();
		foreach ( $ordersby as $_key => $_value ) {
			if ( ! $_value ) {
				continue;
			}

			if ( is_int( $_key ) ) {
				// Integer key means this is a flat array of 'orderby' fields.
				$_orderby = $_value;
				$_order   = $order;
			} else {
				// Non-integer key means this the key is the field and the value is ASC/DESC.
				$_orderby = $_key;
				$_order   = $_value;
			}

			$parsed = $this->parse_orderby( $_orderby );

			if ( ! $parsed ) {
				continue;
			}

			if ( 'nicename__in' === $_orderby || 'login__in' === $_orderby ) {
				$orderby_array[] = $parsed;
			} else {
				$orderby_array[] = $parsed . ' ' . $this->parse_order( $_order );
			}
		}

		// If no valid clauses were found, order by user_login.
		if ( empty( $orderby_array ) ) {
			$orderby_array[] = "user_login $order";
		}

		$this->query_orderby = 'ORDER BY ' . implode( ', ', $orderby_array );

		// Limit.
		if ( isset( $qv['number'] ) && $qv['number'] > 0 ) {
			if ( $qv['offset'] ) {
				$this->query_limit = $wpdb->prepare( 'LIMIT %d, %d', $qv['offset'], $qv['number'] );
			} else {
				$this->query_limit = $wpdb->prepare( 'LIMIT %d, %d', $qv['number'] * ( $qv['paged'] - 1 ), $qv['number'] );
			}
		}

		$search = '';
		if ( isset( $qv['search'] ) ) {
			$search = trim( $qv['search'] );
		}

		if ( $search ) {
			$leading_wild  = ( ltrim( $search, '*' ) != $search );
			$trailing_wild = ( rtrim( $search, '*' ) != $search );
			if ( $leading_wild && $trailing_wild ) {
				$wild = 'both';
			} elseif ( $leading_wild ) {
				$wild = 'leading';
			} elseif ( $trailing_wild ) {
				$wild = 'trailing';
			} else {
				$wild = false;
			}
			if ( $wild ) {
				$search = trim( $search, '*' );
			}

			$search_columns = array();
			if ( $qv['search_columns'] ) {
				$search_columns = array_intersect( $qv['search_columns'], array( 'ID', 'user_login', 'user_email', 'user_url', 'user_nicename', 'display_name' ) );
			}
			if ( ! $search_columns ) {
				if ( false !== strpos( $search, '@' ) ) {
					$search_columns = array( 'user_email' );
				} elseif ( is_numeric( $search ) ) {
					$search_columns = array( 'user_login', 'ID' );
				} elseif ( preg_match( '|^https?://|', $search ) && ! ( is_multisite() && wp_is_large_network( 'users' ) ) ) {
					$search_columns = array( 'user_url' );
				} else {
					$search_columns = array( 'user_login', 'user_url', 'user_email', 'user_nicename', 'display_name' );
				}
			}

			/**
			 * Filters the columns to search in a WP_User_Query search.
			 *
			 * The default columns depend on the search term, and include 'ID', 'user_login',
			 * 'user_email', 'user_url', 'user_nicename', and 'display_name'.
			 *
			 * @since 3.6.0
			 *
			 * @param string[]      $search_columns Array of column names to be searched.
			 * @param string        $search         Text being searched.
			 * @param WP_User_Query $this           The current WP_User_Query instance.
			 */
			$search_columns = apply_filters( 'user_search_columns', $search_columns, $search, $this );

			$this->query_where .= $this->get_search_sql( $search, $search_columns, $wild );
		}

		if ( ! empty( $include ) ) {
			// Sanitized earlier.
			$ids                = implode( ',', $include );
			$this->query_where .= " AND $wpdb->users.ID IN ($ids)";
		} elseif ( ! empty( $qv['exclude'] ) ) {
			$ids                = implode( ',', wp_parse_id_list( $qv['exclude'] ) );
			$this->query_where .= " AND $wpdb->users.ID NOT IN ($ids)";
		}

		// Date queries are allowed for the user_registered field.
		if ( ! empty( $qv['date_query'] ) && is_array( $qv['date_query'] ) ) {
			$date_query         = new WP_Date_Query( $qv['date_query'], 'user_registered' );
			$this->query_where .= $date_query->get_sql();
		}

		/**
		 * Fires after the WP_User_Query has been parsed, and before
		 * the query is executed.
		 *
		 * The passed WP_User_Query object contains SQL parts formed
		 * from parsing the given query.
		 *
		 * @since 3.1.0
		 *
		 * @param WP_User_Query $this The current WP_User_Query instance,
		 *                            passed by reference.
		 */
		do_action_ref_array( 'pre_user_query', array( &$this ) );
	}

	/**
	 * Execute the query, with the current variables.
	 *
	 * @since 3.1.0
	 *
	 * @global wpdb $wpdb WordPress database abstraction object.
	 */
	public function query() {
		global $wpdb;

		$qv =& $this->query_vars;

		/**
		 * Filters the users array before the query takes place.
		 *
		 * Return a non-null value to bypass WordPress's default user queries.
		 * Filtering functions that require pagination information are encouraged to set
		 * the `total_users` property of the WP_User_Query object, passed to the filter
		 * by reference. If WP_User_Query does not perform a database query, it will not
		 * have enough information to generate these values itself.
		 *
		 * @since 5.1.0
		 *
		 * @param array|null $results Return an array of user data to short-circuit WP's user query
		 *                            or null to allow WP to run its normal queries.
		 * @param WP_User_Query $this The WP_User_Query instance (passed by reference).
		 */
		$this->results = apply_filters_ref_array( 'users_pre_query', array( null, &$this ) );

		if ( null === $this->results ) {
			$this->request = "SELECT $this->query_fields $this->query_from $this->query_where $this->query_orderby $this->query_limit";

			if ( is_array( $qv['fields'] ) || 'all' === $qv['fields'] ) {
				$this->results = $wpdb->get_results( $this->request );
			} else {
				$this->results = $wpdb->get_col( $this->request );
			}

			if ( isset( $qv['count_total'] ) && $qv['count_total'] ) {
				/**
				 * Filters SELECT FOUND_ROWS() query for the current WP_User_Query instance.
				 *
				 * @since 3.2.0
				 * @since 5.1.0 Added the `$this` parameter.
				 *
				 * @global wpdb $wpdb WordPress database abstraction object.
				 *
				 * @param string $sql         The SELECT FOUND_ROWS() query for the current WP_User_Query.
				 * @param WP_User_Query $this The current WP_User_Query instance.
				 */
				$found_users_query = apply_filters( 'found_users_query', 'SELECT FOUND_ROWS()', $this );

				$this->total_users = (int) $wpdb->get_var( $found_users_query );
			}
		}

		if ( ! $this->results ) {
			return;
		}

		if ( 'all_with_meta' === $qv['fields'] ) {
			cache_users( $this->results );

			$r = array();
			foreach ( $this->results as $userid ) {
				$r[ $userid ] = new WP_User( $userid, '', $qv['blog_id'] );
			}

			$this->results = $r;
		} elseif ( 'all' === $qv['fields'] ) {
			foreach ( $this->results as $key => $user ) {
				$this->results[ $key ] = new WP_User( $user, '', $qv['blog_id'] );
			}
		}
	}

	/**
	 * Retrieve query variable.
	 *
	 * @since 3.5.0
	 *
	 * @param string $query_var Query variable key.
	 * @return mixed
	 */
	public function get( $query_var ) {
		if ( isset( $this->query_vars[ $query_var ] ) ) {
			return $this->query_vars[ $query_var ];
		}

		return null;
	}

	/**
	 * Set query variable.
	 *
	 * @since 3.5.0
	 *
	 * @param string $query_var Query variable key.
	 * @param mixed  $value     Query variable value.
	 */
	public function set( $query_var, $value ) {
		$this->query_vars[ $query_var ] = $value;
	}

	/**
	 * Used internally to generate an SQL string for searching across multiple columns
	 *
	 * @since 3.1.0
	 *
	 * @global wpdb $wpdb WordPress database abstraction object.
	 *
	 * @param string $string
	 * @param array  $cols
	 * @param bool   $wild   Whether to allow wildcard searches. Default is false for Network Admin, true for single site.
	 *                       Single site allows leading and trailing wildcards, Network Admin only trailing.
	 * @return string
	 */
	protected function get_search_sql( $string, $cols, $wild = false ) {
		global $wpdb;

		$searches      = array();
		$leading_wild  = ( 'leading' === $wild || 'both' === $wild ) ? '%' : '';
		$trailing_wild = ( 'trailing' === $wild || 'both' === $wild ) ? '%' : '';
		$like          = $leading_wild . $wpdb->esc_like( $string ) . $trailing_wild;

		foreach ( $cols as $col ) {
			if ( 'ID' === $col ) {
				$searches[] = $wpdb->prepare( "$col = %s", $string );
			} else {
				$searches[] = $wpdb->prepare( "$col LIKE %s", $like );
			}
		}

		return ' AND (' . implode( ' OR ', $searches ) . ')';
	}

	/**
	 * Return the list of users.
	 *
	 * @since 3.1.0
	 *
	 * @return array Array of results.
	 */
	public function get_results() {
		return $this->results;
	}

	/**
	 * Return the total number of users for the current query.
	 *
	 * @since 3.1.0
	 *
	 * @return int Number of total users.
	 */
	public function get_total() {
		return $this->total_users;
	}

	/**
	 * Parse and sanitize 'orderby' keys passed to the user query.
	 *
	 * @since 4.2.0
	 *
	 * @global wpdb $wpdb WordPress database abstraction object.
	 *
	 * @param string $orderby Alias for the field to order by.
	 * @return string Value to used in the ORDER clause, if `$orderby` is valid.
	 */
	protected function parse_orderby( $orderby ) {
		global $wpdb;

		$meta_query_clauses = $this->meta_query->get_clauses();

		$_orderby = '';
		if ( in_array( $orderby, array( 'login', 'nicename', 'email', 'url', 'registered' ), true ) ) {
			$_orderby = 'user_' . $orderby;
		} elseif ( in_array( $orderby, array( 'user_login', 'user_nicename', 'user_email', 'user_url', 'user_registered' ), true ) ) {
			$_orderby = $orderby;
		} elseif ( 'name' === $orderby || 'display_name' === $orderby ) {
			$_orderby = 'display_name';
		} elseif ( 'post_count' === $orderby ) {
			// @todo Avoid the JOIN.
			$where             = get_posts_by_author_sql( 'post' );
			$this->query_from .= " LEFT OUTER JOIN (
				SELECT post_author, COUNT(*) as post_count
				FROM $wpdb->posts
				$where
				GROUP BY post_author
			) p ON ({$wpdb->users}.ID = p.post_author)
			";
			$_orderby          = 'post_count';
		} elseif ( 'ID' === $orderby || 'id' === $orderby ) {
			$_orderby = 'ID';
		} elseif ( 'meta_value' === $orderby || $this->get( 'meta_key' ) == $orderby ) {
			$_orderby = "$wpdb->usermeta.meta_value";
		} elseif ( 'meta_value_num' === $orderby ) {
			$_orderby = "$wpdb->usermeta.meta_value+0";
		} elseif ( 'include' === $orderby && ! empty( $this->query_vars['include'] ) ) {
			$include     = wp_parse_id_list( $this->query_vars['include'] );
			$include_sql = implode( ',', $include );
			$_orderby    = "FIELD( $wpdb->users.ID, $include_sql )";
		} elseif ( 'nicename__in' === $orderby ) {
			$sanitized_nicename__in = array_map( 'esc_sql', $this->query_vars['nicename__in'] );
			$nicename__in           = implode( "','", $sanitized_nicename__in );
			$_orderby               = "FIELD( user_nicename, '$nicename__in' )";
		} elseif ( 'login__in' === $orderby ) {
			$sanitized_login__in = array_map( 'esc_sql', $this->query_vars['login__in'] );
			$login__in           = implode( "','", $sanitized_login__in );
			$_orderby            = "FIELD( user_login, '$login__in' )";
		} elseif ( isset( $meta_query_clauses[ $orderby ] ) ) {
			$meta_clause = $meta_query_clauses[ $orderby ];
			$_orderby    = sprintf( 'CAST(%s.meta_value AS %s)', esc_sql( $meta_clause['alias'] ), esc_sql( $meta_clause['cast'] ) );
		}

		return $_orderby;
	}

	/**
	 * Parse an 'order' query variable and cast it to ASC or DESC as necessary.
	 *
	 * @since 4.2.0
	 *
	 * @param string $order The 'order' query variable.
	 * @return string The sanitized 'order' query variable.
	 */
	protected function parse_order( $order ) {
		if ( ! is_string( $order ) || empty( $order ) ) {
			return 'DESC';
		}

		if ( 'ASC' === strtoupper( $order ) ) {
			return 'ASC';
		} else {
			return 'DESC';
		}
	}

	/**
	 * Make private properties readable for backward compatibility.
	 *
	 * @since 4.0.0
	 *
	 * @param string $name Property to get.
	 * @return mixed Property.
	 */
	public function __get( $name ) {
		if ( in_array( $name, $this->compat_fields, true ) ) {
			return $this->$name;
		}
	}

	/**
	 * Make private properties settable for backward compatibility.
	 *
	 * @since 4.0.0
	 *
	 * @param string $name  Property to check if set.
	 * @param mixed  $value Property value.
	 * @return mixed Newly-set property.
	 */
	public function __set( $name, $value ) {
		if ( in_array( $name, $this->compat_fields, true ) ) {
			return $this->$name = $value;
		}
	}

	/**
	 * Make private properties checkable for backward compatibility.
	 *
	 * @since 4.0.0
	 *
	 * @param string $name Property to check if set.
	 * @return bool Whether the property is set.
	 */
	public function __isset( $name ) {
		if ( in_array( $name, $this->compat_fields, true ) ) {
			return isset( $this->$name );
		}
	}

	/**
	 * Make private properties un-settable for backward compatibility.
	 *
	 * @since 4.0.0
	 *
	 * @param string $name Property to unset.
	 */
	public function __unset( $name ) {
		if ( in_array( $name, $this->compat_fields, true ) ) {
			unset( $this->$name );
		}
	}

	/**
	 * Make private/protected methods readable for backward compatibility.
	 *
	 * @since 4.0.0
	 *
	 * @param string $name      Method to call.
	 * @param array  $arguments Arguments to pass when calling.
	 * @return mixed Return value of the callback, false otherwise.
	 */
	public function __call( $name, $arguments ) {
		if ( 'get_search_sql' === $name ) {
			return $this->get_search_sql( ...$arguments );
		}
		return false;
	}
}

Top ↑

Methods Methods

  • __call — Make private/protected methods readable for backward compatibility.
  • __construct — PHP5 constructor.
  • __get — Make private properties readable for backward compatibility.
  • __isset — Make private properties checkable for backward compatibility.
  • __set — Make private properties settable for backward compatibility.
  • __unset — Make private properties un-settable for backward compatibility.
  • fill_query_vars — Fills in missing query variables with default values.
  • get — Retrieve query variable.
  • get_results — Return the list of users.
  • get_search_sql — Used internally to generate an SQL string for searching across multiple columns
  • get_total — Return the total number of users for the current query.
  • parse_order — Parse an 'order' query variable and cast it to ASC or DESC as necessary.
  • parse_orderby — Parse and sanitize 'orderby' keys passed to the user query.
  • prepare_query — Prepare the query variables.
  • query — Execute the query, with the current variables.
  • set — Set query variable.

Top ↑

Changelog Changelog

Changelog
Version Description
3.1.0 Introduced.

Top ↑

User Contributed Notes User Contributed Notes

  1. Skip to note 3 content
    Contributed by Maxime Culea

    Also note that users with no roles have also no wp_capabilities, so querying with following args will not match any of them:

    role
    role__not_in
    role__in
    

    The workaround to get theses users, is to use the builtin method : wp_get_users_with_no_role()

  2. Skip to note 4 content
    Contributed by Dotstore

    If you want to search a user by first_name / last_name / description and the default search_columns.

    
    // The search term
    $search_term = 'Ross';
    
    // WP_User_Query arguments
    $args = array (
        'role' => 'reporter',
        'order' => 'ASC',
        'orderby' => 'display_name',
        'search' => '*'.esc_attr( $search_term ).'*',
        'meta_query' => array(
            'relation' => 'OR',
            array(
                'key'     => 'first_name',
                'value'   => $search_term,
                'compare' => 'LIKE'
            ),
            array(
                'key'     => 'last_name',
                'value'   => $search_term,
                'compare' => 'LIKE'
            ),
            array(
                'key' => 'description',
                'value' => $search_term ,
                'compare' => 'LIKE'
            )
        )
    );
    
    // Create the WP_User_Query object
    $wp_user_query = new WP_User_Query($args);
    
    // Get the results
    $authors = $wp_user_query->get_results();
    
    // Check for results
    if (!empty($authors)) {
        echo '<ul>';
        // loop through each author
        foreach ($authors as $author)
        {
            // get all the user's data
            $author_info = get_userdata($author->ID);
            echo '<li>' . $author_info->first_name . ' ' . $author_info->last_name . '</li>';
        }
        echo '</ul>';
    } else {
        echo 'No authors found';
    }
    

You must log in before being able to contribute a note or feedback.