WP_Comment_Query

Core class used for querying comments.


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File: wp-includes/class-wp-comment-query.php

class WP_Comment_Query {

	/**
	 * SQL for database query.
	 *
	 * @since 4.0.1
	 * @var string
	 */
	public $request;

	/**
	 * Metadata query container
	 *
	 * @since 3.5.0
	 * @var object WP_Meta_Query
	 */
	public $meta_query = false;

	/**
	 * Metadata query clauses.
	 *
	 * @since 4.4.0
	 * @var array
	 */
	protected $meta_query_clauses;

	/**
	 * SQL query clauses.
	 *
	 * @since 4.4.0
	 * @var array
	 */
	protected $sql_clauses = array(
		'select'  => '',
		'from'    => '',
		'where'   => array(),
		'groupby' => '',
		'orderby' => '',
		'limits'  => '',
	);

	/**
	 * SQL WHERE clause.
	 *
	 * Stored after the {@see 'comments_clauses'} filter is run on the compiled WHERE sub-clauses.
	 *
	 * @since 4.4.2
	 * @var string
	 */
	protected $filtered_where_clause;

	/**
	 * Date query container
	 *
	 * @since 3.7.0
	 * @var object WP_Date_Query
	 */
	public $date_query = false;

	/**
	 * Query vars set by the user.
	 *
	 * @since 3.1.0
	 * @var array
	 */
	public $query_vars;

	/**
	 * Default values for query vars.
	 *
	 * @since 4.2.0
	 * @var array
	 */
	public $query_var_defaults;

	/**
	 * List of comments located by the query.
	 *
	 * @since 4.0.0
	 * @var array
	 */
	public $comments;

	/**
	 * The amount of found comments for the current query.
	 *
	 * @since 4.4.0
	 * @var int
	 */
	public $found_comments = 0;

	/**
	 * The number of pages.
	 *
	 * @since 4.4.0
	 * @var int
	 */
	public $max_num_pages = 0;

	/**
	 * Make private/protected methods readable for backward compatibility.
	 *
	 * @since 4.0.0
	 *
	 * @param string   $name      Method to call.
	 * @param array    $arguments Arguments to pass when calling.
	 * @return mixed|false Return value of the callback, false otherwise.
	 */
	public function __call( $name, $arguments ) {
		if ( 'get_search_sql' === $name ) {
			return call_user_func_array( array( $this, $name ), $arguments );
		}
		return false;
	}

	/**
	 * Constructor.
	 *
	 * Sets up the comment query, based on the query vars passed.
	 *
	 * @since 4.2.0
	 * @since 4.4.0 `$parent__in` and `$parent__not_in` were added.
	 * @since 4.4.0 Order by `comment__in` was added. `$update_comment_meta_cache`, `$no_found_rows`,
	 *              `$hierarchical`, and `$update_comment_post_cache` were added.
	 * @since 4.5.0 Introduced the `$author_url` argument.
	 * @since 4.6.0 Introduced the `$cache_domain` argument.
	 * @since 4.9.0 Introduced the `$paged` argument.
	 *
	 * @param string|array $query {
	 *     Optional. Array or query string of comment query parameters. Default empty.
	 *
	 *     @type string       $author_email              Comment author email address. Default empty.
	 *     @type string       $author_url                Comment author URL. Default empty.
	 *     @type array        $author__in                Array of author IDs to include comments for. Default empty.
	 *     @type array        $author__not_in            Array of author IDs to exclude comments for. Default empty.
	 *     @type array        $comment__in               Array of comment IDs to include. Default empty.
	 *     @type array        $comment__not_in           Array of comment IDs to exclude. Default empty.
	 *     @type bool         $count                     Whether to return a comment count (true) or array of
	 *                                                   comment objects (false). Default false.
	 *     @type array        $date_query                Date query clauses to limit comments by. See WP_Date_Query.
	 *                                                   Default null.
	 *     @type string       $fields                    Comment fields to return. Accepts 'ids' for comment IDs
	 *                                                   only or empty for all fields. Default empty.
	 *     @type int          $ID                        Currently unused.
	 *     @type array        $include_unapproved        Array of IDs or email addresses of users whose unapproved
	 *                                                   comments will be returned by the query regardless of
	 *                                                   `$status`. Default empty.
	 *     @type int          $karma                     Karma score to retrieve matching comments for.
	 *                                                   Default empty.
	 *     @type string       $meta_key                  Include comments with a matching comment meta key.
	 *                                                   Default empty.
	 *     @type string       $meta_value                Include comments with a matching comment meta value.
	 *                                                   Requires `$meta_key` to be set. Default empty.
	 *     @type array        $meta_query                Meta query clauses to limit retrieved comments by.
	 *                                                   See WP_Meta_Query. Default empty.
	 *     @type int          $number                    Maximum number of comments to retrieve.
	 *                                                   Default empty (no limit).
	 *     @type int          $paged                     When used with $number, defines the page of results to return.
	 *                                                   When used with $offset, $offset takes precedence. Default 1.
	 *     @type int          $offset                    Number of comments to offset the query. Used to build
	 *                                                   LIMIT clause. Default 0.
	 *     @type bool         $no_found_rows             Whether to disable the `SQL_CALC_FOUND_ROWS` query.
	 *                                                   Default: true.
	 *     @type string|array $orderby                   Comment status or array of statuses. To use 'meta_value'
	 *                                                   or 'meta_value_num', `$meta_key` must also be defined.
	 *                                                   To sort by a specific `$meta_query` clause, use that
	 *                                                   clause's array key. Accepts 'comment_agent',
	 *                                                   'comment_approved', 'comment_author',
	 *                                                   'comment_author_email', 'comment_author_IP',
	 *                                                   'comment_author_url', 'comment_content', 'comment_date',
	 *                                                   'comment_date_gmt', 'comment_ID', 'comment_karma',
	 *                                                   'comment_parent', 'comment_post_ID', 'comment_type',
	 *                                                   'user_id', 'comment__in', 'meta_value', 'meta_value_num',
	 *                                                   the value of $meta_key, and the array keys of
	 *                                                   `$meta_query`. Also accepts false, an empty array, or
	 *                                                   'none' to disable `ORDER BY` clause.
	 *                                                   Default: 'comment_date_gmt'.
	 *     @type string       $order                     How to order retrieved comments. Accepts 'ASC', 'DESC'.
	 *                                                   Default: 'DESC'.
	 *     @type int          $parent                    Parent ID of comment to retrieve children of.
	 *                                                   Default empty.
	 *     @type array        $parent__in                Array of parent IDs of comments to retrieve children for.
	 *                                                   Default empty.
	 *     @type array        $parent__not_in            Array of parent IDs of comments *not* to retrieve
	 *                                                   children for. Default empty.
	 *     @type array        $post_author__in           Array of author IDs to retrieve comments for.
	 *                                                   Default empty.
	 *     @type array        $post_author__not_in       Array of author IDs *not* to retrieve comments for.
	 *                                                   Default empty.
	 *     @type int          $post_ID                   Currently unused.
	 *     @type int          $post_id                   Limit results to those affiliated with a given post ID.
	 *                                                   Default 0.
	 *     @type array        $post__in                  Array of post IDs to include affiliated comments for.
	 *                                                   Default empty.
	 *     @type array        $post__not_in              Array of post IDs to exclude affiliated comments for.
	 *                                                   Default empty.
	 *     @type int          $post_author               Post author ID to limit results by. Default empty.
	 *     @type string|array $post_status               Post status or array of post statuses to retrieve
	 *                                                   affiliated comments for. Pass 'any' to match any value.
	 *                                                   Default empty.
	 *     @type string       $post_type                 Post type or array of post types to retrieve affiliated
	 *                                                   comments for. Pass 'any' to match any value. Default empty.
	 *     @type string       $post_name                 Post name to retrieve affiliated comments for.
	 *                                                   Default empty.
	 *     @type int          $post_parent               Post parent ID to retrieve affiliated comments for.
	 *                                                   Default empty.
	 *     @type string       $search                    Search term(s) to retrieve matching comments for.
	 *                                                   Default empty.
	 *     @type string|array $status                    Comment stati to limit results by. Accepts an array
	 *                                                   or space/comma-separated list of 'hold' (`comment_status=0`),
	 *                                                   'approve' (`comment_status=1`), 'all', or a custom
	 *                                                   comment status. Default 'all'.
	 *     @type string|array $type                      Include comments of a given type, or array of types.
	 *                                                   Accepts 'comment', 'pings' (includes 'pingback' and
	 *                                                   'trackback'), or anycustom type string. Default empty.
	 *     @type array        $type__in                  Include comments from a given array of comment types.
	 *                                                   Default empty.
	 *     @type array        $type__not_in              Exclude comments from a given array of comment types.
	 *                                                   Default empty.
	 *     @type int          $user_id                   Include comments for a specific user ID. Default empty.
	 *     @type bool|string  $hierarchical              Whether to include comment descendants in the results.
	 *                                                   'threaded' returns a tree, with each comment's children
	 *                                                   stored in a `children` property on the `WP_Comment`
	 *                                                   object. 'flat' returns a flat array of found comments plus
	 *                                                   their children. Pass `false` to leave out descendants.
	 *                                                   The parameter is ignored (forced to `false`) when
	 *                                                   `$fields` is 'ids' or 'counts'. Accepts 'threaded',
	 *                                                   'flat', or false. Default: false.
	 *     @type string       $cache_domain              Unique cache key to be produced when this query is stored in
	 *                                                   an object cache. Default is 'core'.
	 *     @type bool         $update_comment_meta_cache Whether to prime the metadata cache for found comments.
	 *                                                   Default true.
	 *     @type bool         $update_comment_post_cache Whether to prime the cache for comment posts.
	 *                                                   Default false.
	 * }
	 */
	public function __construct( $query = '' ) {
		$this->query_var_defaults = array(
			'author_email'              => '',
			'author_url'                => '',
			'author__in'                => '',
			'author__not_in'            => '',
			'include_unapproved'        => '',
			'fields'                    => '',
			'ID'                        => '',
			'comment__in'               => '',
			'comment__not_in'           => '',
			'karma'                     => '',
			'number'                    => '',
			'offset'                    => '',
			'no_found_rows'             => true,
			'orderby'                   => '',
			'order'                     => 'DESC',
			'paged'                     => 1,
			'parent'                    => '',
			'parent__in'                => '',
			'parent__not_in'            => '',
			'post_author__in'           => '',
			'post_author__not_in'       => '',
			'post_ID'                   => '',
			'post_id'                   => 0,
			'post__in'                  => '',
			'post__not_in'              => '',
			'post_author'               => '',
			'post_name'                 => '',
			'post_parent'               => '',
			'post_status'               => '',
			'post_type'                 => '',
			'status'                    => 'all',
			'type'                      => '',
			'type__in'                  => '',
			'type__not_in'              => '',
			'user_id'                   => '',
			'search'                    => '',
			'count'                     => false,
			'meta_key'                  => '',
			'meta_value'                => '',
			'meta_query'                => '',
			'date_query'                => null, // See WP_Date_Query
			'hierarchical'              => false,
			'cache_domain'              => 'core',
			'update_comment_meta_cache' => true,
			'update_comment_post_cache' => false,
		);

		if ( ! empty( $query ) ) {
			$this->query( $query );
		}
	}

	/**
	 * Parse arguments passed to the comment query with default query parameters.
	 *
	 * @since 4.2.0 Extracted from WP_Comment_Query::query().
	 *
	 * @param string|array $query WP_Comment_Query arguments. See WP_Comment_Query::__construct()
	 */
	public function parse_query( $query = '' ) {
		if ( empty( $query ) ) {
			$query = $this->query_vars;
		}

		$this->query_vars = wp_parse_args( $query, $this->query_var_defaults );

		/**
		 * Fires after the comment query vars have been parsed.
		 *
		 * @since 4.2.0
		 *
		 * @param WP_Comment_Query $this The WP_Comment_Query instance (passed by reference).
		 */
		do_action_ref_array( 'parse_comment_query', array( &$this ) );
	}

	/**
	 * Sets up the WordPress query for retrieving comments.
	 *
	 * @since 3.1.0
	 * @since 4.1.0 Introduced 'comment__in', 'comment__not_in', 'post_author__in',
	 *              'post_author__not_in', 'author__in', 'author__not_in', 'post__in',
	 *              'post__not_in', 'include_unapproved', 'type__in', and 'type__not_in'
	 *              arguments to $query_vars.
	 * @since 4.2.0 Moved parsing to WP_Comment_Query::parse_query().
	 *
	 * @param string|array $query Array or URL query string of parameters.
	 * @return array|int List of comments, or number of comments when 'count' is passed as a query var.
	 */
	public function query( $query ) {
		$this->query_vars = wp_parse_args( $query );
		return $this->get_comments();
	}

	/**
	 * Get a list of comments matching the query vars.
	 *
	 * @since 4.2.0
	 *
	 * @global wpdb $wpdb WordPress database abstraction object.
	 *
	 * @return int|array List of comments or number of found comments if `$count` argument is true.
	 */
	public function get_comments() {
		global $wpdb;

		$this->parse_query();

		// Parse meta query
		$this->meta_query = new WP_Meta_Query();
		$this->meta_query->parse_query_vars( $this->query_vars );

		/**
		 * Fires before comments are retrieved.
		 *
		 * @since 3.1.0
		 *
		 * @param WP_Comment_Query $this Current instance of WP_Comment_Query (passed by reference).
		 */
		do_action_ref_array( 'pre_get_comments', array( &$this ) );

		// Reparse query vars, in case they were modified in a 'pre_get_comments' callback.
		$this->meta_query->parse_query_vars( $this->query_vars );
		if ( ! empty( $this->meta_query->queries ) ) {
			$this->meta_query_clauses = $this->meta_query->get_sql( 'comment', $wpdb->comments, 'comment_ID', $this );
		}

		/*
		 * Only use the args defined in the query_var_defaults to compute the key,
		 * but ignore 'fields', which does not affect query results.
		 */
		$_args = wp_array_slice_assoc( $this->query_vars, array_keys( $this->query_var_defaults ) );
		unset( $_args['fields'] );

		$key          = md5( serialize( $_args ) );
		$last_changed = wp_cache_get_last_changed( 'comment' );

		$cache_key   = "get_comments:$key:$last_changed";
		$cache_value = wp_cache_get( $cache_key, 'comment' );
		if ( false === $cache_value ) {
			$comment_ids = $this->get_comment_ids();
			if ( $comment_ids ) {
				$this->set_found_comments();
			}

			$cache_value = array(
				'comment_ids'    => $comment_ids,
				'found_comments' => $this->found_comments,
			);
			wp_cache_add( $cache_key, $cache_value, 'comment' );
		} else {
			$comment_ids          = $cache_value['comment_ids'];
			$this->found_comments = $cache_value['found_comments'];
		}

		if ( $this->found_comments && $this->query_vars['number'] ) {
			$this->max_num_pages = ceil( $this->found_comments / $this->query_vars['number'] );
		}

		// If querying for a count only, there's nothing more to do.
		if ( $this->query_vars['count'] ) {
			// $comment_ids is actually a count in this case.
			return intval( $comment_ids );
		}

		$comment_ids = array_map( 'intval', $comment_ids );

		if ( 'ids' == $this->query_vars['fields'] ) {
			$this->comments = $comment_ids;
			return $this->comments;
		}

		_prime_comment_caches( $comment_ids, $this->query_vars['update_comment_meta_cache'] );

		// Fetch full comment objects from the primed cache.
		$_comments = array();
		foreach ( $comment_ids as $comment_id ) {
			if ( $_comment = get_comment( $comment_id ) ) {
				$_comments[] = $_comment;
			}
		}

		// Prime comment post caches.
		if ( $this->query_vars['update_comment_post_cache'] ) {
			$comment_post_ids = array();
			foreach ( $_comments as $_comment ) {
				$comment_post_ids[] = $_comment->comment_post_ID;
			}

			_prime_post_caches( $comment_post_ids, false, false );
		}

		/**
		 * Filters the comment query results.
		 *
		 * @since 3.1.0
		 *
		 * @param WP_Comment[]     $_comments An array of comments.
		 * @param WP_Comment_Query $this      Current instance of WP_Comment_Query (passed by reference).
		 */
		$_comments = apply_filters_ref_array( 'the_comments', array( $_comments, &$this ) );

		// Convert to WP_Comment instances
		$comments = array_map( 'get_comment', $_comments );

		if ( $this->query_vars['hierarchical'] ) {
			$comments = $this->fill_descendants( $comments );
		}

		$this->comments = $comments;
		return $this->comments;
	}

	/**
	 * Used internally to get a list of comment IDs matching the query vars.
	 *
	 * @since 4.4.0
	 *
	 * @global wpdb $wpdb WordPress database abstraction object.
	 *
	 * @return int|array A single count of comment IDs if a count query. An array of comment IDs if a full query.
	 */
	protected function get_comment_ids() {
		global $wpdb;

		// Assemble clauses related to 'comment_approved'.
		$approved_clauses = array();

		// 'status' accepts an array or a comma-separated string.
		$status_clauses = array();
		$statuses       = wp_parse_list( $this->query_vars['status'] );

		// Empty 'status' should be interpreted as 'all'.
		if ( empty( $statuses ) ) {
			$statuses = array( 'all' );
		}

		// 'any' overrides other statuses.
		if ( ! in_array( 'any', $statuses ) ) {
			foreach ( $statuses as $status ) {
				switch ( $status ) {
					case 'hold':
						$status_clauses[] = "comment_approved = '0'";
						break;

					case 'approve':
						$status_clauses[] = "comment_approved = '1'";
						break;

					case 'all':
					case '':
						$status_clauses[] = "( comment_approved = '0' OR comment_approved = '1' )";
						break;

					default:
						$status_clauses[] = $wpdb->prepare( 'comment_approved = %s', $status );
						break;
				}
			}

			if ( ! empty( $status_clauses ) ) {
				$approved_clauses[] = '( ' . implode( ' OR ', $status_clauses ) . ' )';
			}
		}

		// User IDs or emails whose unapproved comments are included, regardless of $status.
		if ( ! empty( $this->query_vars['include_unapproved'] ) ) {
			$include_unapproved = wp_parse_list( $this->query_vars['include_unapproved'] );

			$unapproved_ids    = array();
			$unapproved_emails = array();
			foreach ( $include_unapproved as $unapproved_identifier ) {
				// Numeric values are assumed to be user ids.
				if ( is_numeric( $unapproved_identifier ) ) {
					$approved_clauses[] = $wpdb->prepare( "( user_id = %d AND comment_approved = '0' )", $unapproved_identifier );

					// Otherwise we match against email addresses.
				} else {
					$approved_clauses[] = $wpdb->prepare( "( comment_author_email = %s AND comment_approved = '0' )", $unapproved_identifier );
				}
			}
		}

		// Collapse comment_approved clauses into a single OR-separated clause.
		if ( ! empty( $approved_clauses ) ) {
			if ( 1 === count( $approved_clauses ) ) {
				$this->sql_clauses['where']['approved'] = $approved_clauses[0];
			} else {
				$this->sql_clauses['where']['approved'] = '( ' . implode( ' OR ', $approved_clauses ) . ' )';
			}
		}

		$order = ( 'ASC' == strtoupper( $this->query_vars['order'] ) ) ? 'ASC' : 'DESC';

		// Disable ORDER BY with 'none', an empty array, or boolean false.
		if ( in_array( $this->query_vars['orderby'], array( 'none', array(), false ), true ) ) {
			$orderby = '';
		} elseif ( ! empty( $this->query_vars['orderby'] ) ) {
			$ordersby = is_array( $this->query_vars['orderby'] ) ?
				$this->query_vars['orderby'] :
				preg_split( '/[,\s]/', $this->query_vars['orderby'] );

			$orderby_array            = array();
			$found_orderby_comment_id = false;
			foreach ( $ordersby as $_key => $_value ) {
				if ( ! $_value ) {
					continue;
				}

				if ( is_int( $_key ) ) {
					$_orderby = $_value;
					$_order   = $order;
				} else {
					$_orderby = $_key;
					$_order   = $_value;
				}

				if ( ! $found_orderby_comment_id && in_array( $_orderby, array( 'comment_ID', 'comment__in' ) ) ) {
					$found_orderby_comment_id = true;
				}

				$parsed = $this->parse_orderby( $_orderby );

				if ( ! $parsed ) {
					continue;
				}

				if ( 'comment__in' === $_orderby ) {
					$orderby_array[] = $parsed;
					continue;
				}

				$orderby_array[] = $parsed . ' ' . $this->parse_order( $_order );
			}

			// If no valid clauses were found, order by comment_date_gmt.
			if ( empty( $orderby_array ) ) {
				$orderby_array[] = "$wpdb->comments.comment_date_gmt $order";
			}

			// To ensure determinate sorting, always include a comment_ID clause.
			if ( ! $found_orderby_comment_id ) {
				$comment_id_order = '';

				// Inherit order from comment_date or comment_date_gmt, if available.
				foreach ( $orderby_array as $orderby_clause ) {
					if ( preg_match( '/comment_date(?:_gmt)*\ (ASC|DESC)/', $orderby_clause, $match ) ) {
						$comment_id_order = $match[1];
						break;
					}
				}

				// If no date-related order is available, use the date from the first available clause.
				if ( ! $comment_id_order ) {
					foreach ( $orderby_array as $orderby_clause ) {
						if ( false !== strpos( 'ASC', $orderby_clause ) ) {
							$comment_id_order = 'ASC';
						} else {
							$comment_id_order = 'DESC';
						}

						break;
					}
				}

				// Default to DESC.
				if ( ! $comment_id_order ) {
					$comment_id_order = 'DESC';
				}

				$orderby_array[] = "$wpdb->comments.comment_ID $comment_id_order";
			}

			$orderby = implode( ', ', $orderby_array );
		} else {
			$orderby = "$wpdb->comments.comment_date_gmt $order";
		}

		$number = absint( $this->query_vars['number'] );
		$offset = absint( $this->query_vars['offset'] );
		$paged  = absint( $this->query_vars['paged'] );
		$limits = '';

		if ( ! empty( $number ) ) {
			if ( $offset ) {
				$limits = 'LIMIT ' . $offset . ',' . $number;
			} else {
				$limits = 'LIMIT ' . ( $number * ( $paged - 1 ) ) . ',' . $number;
			}
		}

		if ( $this->query_vars['count'] ) {
			$fields = 'COUNT(*)';
		} else {
			$fields = "$wpdb->comments.comment_ID";
		}

		$post_id = absint( $this->query_vars['post_id'] );
		if ( ! empty( $post_id ) ) {
			$this->sql_clauses['where']['post_id'] = $wpdb->prepare( 'comment_post_ID = %d', $post_id );
		}

		// Parse comment IDs for an IN clause.
		if ( ! empty( $this->query_vars['comment__in'] ) ) {
			$this->sql_clauses['where']['comment__in'] = "$wpdb->comments.comment_ID IN ( " . implode( ',', wp_parse_id_list( $this->query_vars['comment__in'] ) ) . ' )';
		}

		// Parse comment IDs for a NOT IN clause.
		if ( ! empty( $this->query_vars['comment__not_in'] ) ) {
			$this->sql_clauses['where']['comment__not_in'] = "$wpdb->comments.comment_ID NOT IN ( " . implode( ',', wp_parse_id_list( $this->query_vars['comment__not_in'] ) ) . ' )';
		}

		// Parse comment parent IDs for an IN clause.
		if ( ! empty( $this->query_vars['parent__in'] ) ) {
			$this->sql_clauses['where']['parent__in'] = 'comment_parent IN ( ' . implode( ',', wp_parse_id_list( $this->query_vars['parent__in'] ) ) . ' )';
		}

		// Parse comment parent IDs for a NOT IN clause.
		if ( ! empty( $this->query_vars['parent__not_in'] ) ) {
			$this->sql_clauses['where']['parent__not_in'] = 'comment_parent NOT IN ( ' . implode( ',', wp_parse_id_list( $this->query_vars['parent__not_in'] ) ) . ' )';
		}

		// Parse comment post IDs for an IN clause.
		if ( ! empty( $this->query_vars['post__in'] ) ) {
			$this->sql_clauses['where']['post__in'] = 'comment_post_ID IN ( ' . implode( ',', wp_parse_id_list( $this->query_vars['post__in'] ) ) . ' )';
		}

		// Parse comment post IDs for a NOT IN clause.
		if ( ! empty( $this->query_vars['post__not_in'] ) ) {
			$this->sql_clauses['where']['post__not_in'] = 'comment_post_ID NOT IN ( ' . implode( ',', wp_parse_id_list( $this->query_vars['post__not_in'] ) ) . ' )';
		}

		if ( '' !== $this->query_vars['author_email'] ) {
			$this->sql_clauses['where']['author_email'] = $wpdb->prepare( 'comment_author_email = %s', $this->query_vars['author_email'] );
		}

		if ( '' !== $this->query_vars['author_url'] ) {
			$this->sql_clauses['where']['author_url'] = $wpdb->prepare( 'comment_author_url = %s', $this->query_vars['author_url'] );
		}

		if ( '' !== $this->query_vars['karma'] ) {
			$this->sql_clauses['where']['karma'] = $wpdb->prepare( 'comment_karma = %d', $this->query_vars['karma'] );
		}

		// Filtering by comment_type: 'type', 'type__in', 'type__not_in'.
		$raw_types = array(
			'IN'     => array_merge( (array) $this->query_vars['type'], (array) $this->query_vars['type__in'] ),
			'NOT IN' => (array) $this->query_vars['type__not_in'],
		);

		$comment_types = array();
		foreach ( $raw_types as $operator => $_raw_types ) {
			$_raw_types = array_unique( $_raw_types );

			foreach ( $_raw_types as $type ) {
				switch ( $type ) {
					// An empty translates to 'all', for backward compatibility
					case '':
					case 'all':
						break;

					case 'comment':
					case 'comments':
						$comment_types[ $operator ][] = "''";
						break;

					case 'pings':
						$comment_types[ $operator ][] = "'pingback'";
						$comment_types[ $operator ][] = "'trackback'";
						break;

					default:
						$comment_types[ $operator ][] = $wpdb->prepare( '%s', $type );
						break;
				}
			}

			if ( ! empty( $comment_types[ $operator ] ) ) {
				$types_sql = implode( ', ', $comment_types[ $operator ] );
				$this->sql_clauses['where'][ 'comment_type__' . strtolower( str_replace( ' ', '_', $operator ) ) ] = "comment_type $operator ($types_sql)";
			}
		}

		$parent = $this->query_vars['parent'];
		if ( $this->query_vars['hierarchical'] && ! $parent ) {
			$parent = 0;
		}

		if ( '' !== $parent ) {
			$this->sql_clauses['where']['parent'] = $wpdb->prepare( 'comment_parent = %d', $parent );
		}

		if ( is_array( $this->query_vars['user_id'] ) ) {
			$this->sql_clauses['where']['user_id'] = 'user_id IN (' . implode( ',', array_map( 'absint', $this->query_vars['user_id'] ) ) . ')';
		} elseif ( '' !== $this->query_vars['user_id'] ) {
			$this->sql_clauses['where']['user_id'] = $wpdb->prepare( 'user_id = %d', $this->query_vars['user_id'] );
		}

		// Falsy search strings are ignored.
		if ( strlen( $this->query_vars['search'] ) ) {
			$search_sql = $this->get_search_sql(
				$this->query_vars['search'],
				array( 'comment_author', 'comment_author_email', 'comment_author_url', 'comment_author_IP', 'comment_content' )
			);

			// Strip leading 'AND'.
			$this->sql_clauses['where']['search'] = preg_replace( '/^\s*AND\s*/', '', $search_sql );
		}

		// If any post-related query vars are passed, join the posts table.
		$join_posts_table = false;
		$plucked          = wp_array_slice_assoc( $this->query_vars, array( 'post_author', 'post_name', 'post_parent' ) );
		$post_fields      = array_filter( $plucked );

		if ( ! empty( $post_fields ) ) {
			$join_posts_table = true;
			foreach ( $post_fields as $field_name => $field_value ) {
				// $field_value may be an array.
				$esses                                     = array_fill( 0, count( (array) $field_value ), '%s' );
				$this->sql_clauses['where'][ $field_name ] = $wpdb->prepare( " {$wpdb->posts}.{$field_name} IN (" . implode( ',', $esses ) . ')', $field_value );
			}
		}

		// 'post_status' and 'post_type' are handled separately, due to the specialized behavior of 'any'.
		foreach ( array( 'post_status', 'post_type' ) as $field_name ) {
			$q_values = array();
			if ( ! empty( $this->query_vars[ $field_name ] ) ) {
				$q_values = $this->query_vars[ $field_name ];
				if ( ! is_array( $q_values ) ) {
					$q_values = explode( ',', $q_values );
				}

				// 'any' will cause the query var to be ignored.
				if ( in_array( 'any', $q_values, true ) || empty( $q_values ) ) {
					continue;
				}

				$join_posts_table = true;

				$esses                                     = array_fill( 0, count( $q_values ), '%s' );
				$this->sql_clauses['where'][ $field_name ] = $wpdb->prepare( " {$wpdb->posts}.{$field_name} IN (" . implode( ',', $esses ) . ')', $q_values );
			}
		}

		// Comment author IDs for an IN clause.
		if ( ! empty( $this->query_vars['author__in'] ) ) {
			$this->sql_clauses['where']['author__in'] = 'user_id IN ( ' . implode( ',', wp_parse_id_list( $this->query_vars['author__in'] ) ) . ' )';
		}

		// Comment author IDs for a NOT IN clause.
		if ( ! empty( $this->query_vars['author__not_in'] ) ) {
			$this->sql_clauses['where']['author__not_in'] = 'user_id NOT IN ( ' . implode( ',', wp_parse_id_list( $this->query_vars['author__not_in'] ) ) . ' )';
		}

		// Post author IDs for an IN clause.
		if ( ! empty( $this->query_vars['post_author__in'] ) ) {
			$join_posts_table                              = true;
			$this->sql_clauses['where']['post_author__in'] = 'post_author IN ( ' . implode( ',', wp_parse_id_list( $this->query_vars['post_author__in'] ) ) . ' )';
		}

		// Post author IDs for a NOT IN clause.
		if ( ! empty( $this->query_vars['post_author__not_in'] ) ) {
			$join_posts_table                                  = true;
			$this->sql_clauses['where']['post_author__not_in'] = 'post_author NOT IN ( ' . implode( ',', wp_parse_id_list( $this->query_vars['post_author__not_in'] ) ) . ' )';
		}

		$join    = '';
		$groupby = '';

		if ( $join_posts_table ) {
			$join .= "JOIN $wpdb->posts ON $wpdb->posts.ID = $wpdb->comments.comment_post_ID";
		}

		if ( ! empty( $this->meta_query_clauses ) ) {
			$join .= $this->meta_query_clauses['join'];

			// Strip leading 'AND'.
			$this->sql_clauses['where']['meta_query'] = preg_replace( '/^\s*AND\s*/', '', $this->meta_query_clauses['where'] );

			if ( ! $this->query_vars['count'] ) {
				$groupby = "{$wpdb->comments}.comment_ID";
			}
		}

		if ( ! empty( $this->query_vars['date_query'] ) && is_array( $this->query_vars['date_query'] ) ) {
			$this->date_query                         = new WP_Date_Query( $this->query_vars['date_query'], 'comment_date' );
			$this->sql_clauses['where']['date_query'] = preg_replace( '/^\s*AND\s*/', '', $this->date_query->get_sql() );
		}

		$where = implode( ' AND ', $this->sql_clauses['where'] );

		$pieces = array( 'fields', 'join', 'where', 'orderby', 'limits', 'groupby' );
		/**
		 * Filters the comment query clauses.
		 *
		 * @since 3.1.0
		 *
		 * @param string[]         $pieces An associative array of comment query clauses.
		 * @param WP_Comment_Query $this   Current instance of WP_Comment_Query (passed by reference).
		 */
		$clauses = apply_filters_ref_array( 'comments_clauses', array( compact( $pieces ), &$this ) );

		$fields  = isset( $clauses['fields'] ) ? $clauses['fields'] : '';
		$join    = isset( $clauses['join'] ) ? $clauses['join'] : '';
		$where   = isset( $clauses['where'] ) ? $clauses['where'] : '';
		$orderby = isset( $clauses['orderby'] ) ? $clauses['orderby'] : '';
		$limits  = isset( $clauses['limits'] ) ? $clauses['limits'] : '';
		$groupby = isset( $clauses['groupby'] ) ? $clauses['groupby'] : '';

		$this->filtered_where_clause = $where;

		if ( $where ) {
			$where = 'WHERE ' . $where;
		}

		if ( $groupby ) {
			$groupby = 'GROUP BY ' . $groupby;
		}

		if ( $orderby ) {
			$orderby = "ORDER BY $orderby";
		}

		$found_rows = '';
		if ( ! $this->query_vars['no_found_rows'] ) {
			$found_rows = 'SQL_CALC_FOUND_ROWS';
		}

		$this->sql_clauses['select']  = "SELECT $found_rows $fields";
		$this->sql_clauses['from']    = "FROM $wpdb->comments $join";
		$this->sql_clauses['groupby'] = $groupby;
		$this->sql_clauses['orderby'] = $orderby;
		$this->sql_clauses['limits']  = $limits;

		$this->request = "{$this->sql_clauses['select']} {$this->sql_clauses['from']} {$where} {$this->sql_clauses['groupby']} {$this->sql_clauses['orderby']} {$this->sql_clauses['limits']}";

		if ( $this->query_vars['count'] ) {
			return intval( $wpdb->get_var( $this->request ) );
		} else {
			$comment_ids = $wpdb->get_col( $this->request );
			return array_map( 'intval', $comment_ids );
		}
	}

	/**
	 * Populates found_comments and max_num_pages properties for the current
	 * query if the limit clause was used.
	 *
	 * @since 4.6.0
	 *
	 * @global wpdb $wpdb WordPress database abstraction object.
	 */
	private function set_found_comments() {
		global $wpdb;

		if ( $this->query_vars['number'] && ! $this->query_vars['no_found_rows'] ) {
			/**
			 * Filters the query used to retrieve found comment count.
			 *
			 * @since 4.4.0
			 *
			 * @param string           $found_comments_query SQL query. Default 'SELECT FOUND_ROWS()'.
			 * @param WP_Comment_Query $comment_query        The `WP_Comment_Query` instance.
			 */
			$found_comments_query = apply_filters( 'found_comments_query', 'SELECT FOUND_ROWS()', $this );

			$this->found_comments = (int) $wpdb->get_var( $found_comments_query );
		}
	}

	/**
	 * Fetch descendants for located comments.
	 *
	 * Instead of calling `get_children()` separately on each child comment, we do a single set of queries to fetch
	 * the descendant trees for all matched top-level comments.
	 *
	 * @since 4.4.0
	 *
	 * @global wpdb $wpdb WordPress database abstraction object.
	 *
	 * @param WP_Comment[] $comments Array of top-level comments whose descendants should be filled in.
	 * @return array
	 */
	protected function fill_descendants( $comments ) {
		global $wpdb;

		$levels = array(
			0 => wp_list_pluck( $comments, 'comment_ID' ),
		);

		$key          = md5( serialize( wp_array_slice_assoc( $this->query_vars, array_keys( $this->query_var_defaults ) ) ) );
		$last_changed = wp_cache_get_last_changed( 'comment' );

		// Fetch an entire level of the descendant tree at a time.
		$level        = 0;
		$exclude_keys = array( 'parent', 'parent__in', 'parent__not_in' );
		do {
			// Parent-child relationships may be cached. Only query for those that are not.
			$child_ids   = $uncached_parent_ids = array();
			$_parent_ids = $levels[ $level ];
			foreach ( $_parent_ids as $parent_id ) {
				$cache_key        = "get_comment_child_ids:$parent_id:$key:$last_changed";
				$parent_child_ids = wp_cache_get( $cache_key, 'comment' );
				if ( false !== $parent_child_ids ) {
					$child_ids = array_merge( $child_ids, $parent_child_ids );
				} else {
					$uncached_parent_ids[] = $parent_id;
				}
			}

			if ( $uncached_parent_ids ) {
				// Fetch this level of comments.
				$parent_query_args = $this->query_vars;
				foreach ( $exclude_keys as $exclude_key ) {
					$parent_query_args[ $exclude_key ] = '';
				}
				$parent_query_args['parent__in']    = $uncached_parent_ids;
				$parent_query_args['no_found_rows'] = true;
				$parent_query_args['hierarchical']  = false;
				$parent_query_args['offset']        = 0;
				$parent_query_args['number']        = 0;

				$level_comments = get_comments( $parent_query_args );

				// Cache parent-child relationships.
				$parent_map = array_fill_keys( $uncached_parent_ids, array() );
				foreach ( $level_comments as $level_comment ) {
					$parent_map[ $level_comment->comment_parent ][] = $level_comment->comment_ID;
					$child_ids[]                                    = $level_comment->comment_ID;
				}

				foreach ( $parent_map as $parent_id => $children ) {
					$cache_key = "get_comment_child_ids:$parent_id:$key:$last_changed";
					wp_cache_set( $cache_key, $children, 'comment' );
				}
			}

			$level++;
			$levels[ $level ] = $child_ids;
		} while ( $child_ids );

		// Prime comment caches for non-top-level comments.
		$descendant_ids = array();
		for ( $i = 1, $c = count( $levels ); $i < $c; $i++ ) {
			$descendant_ids = array_merge( $descendant_ids, $levels[ $i ] );
		}

		_prime_comment_caches( $descendant_ids, $this->query_vars['update_comment_meta_cache'] );

		// Assemble a flat array of all comments + descendants.
		$all_comments = $comments;
		foreach ( $descendant_ids as $descendant_id ) {
			$all_comments[] = get_comment( $descendant_id );
		}

		// If a threaded representation was requested, build the tree.
		if ( 'threaded' === $this->query_vars['hierarchical'] ) {
			$threaded_comments = $ref = array();
			foreach ( $all_comments as $k => $c ) {
				$_c = get_comment( $c->comment_ID );

				// If the comment isn't in the reference array, it goes in the top level of the thread.
				if ( ! isset( $ref[ $c->comment_parent ] ) ) {
					$threaded_comments[ $_c->comment_ID ] = $_c;
					$ref[ $_c->comment_ID ]               = $threaded_comments[ $_c->comment_ID ];

					// Otherwise, set it as a child of its parent.
				} else {

					$ref[ $_c->comment_parent ]->add_child( $_c );
					$ref[ $_c->comment_ID ] = $ref[ $_c->comment_parent ]->get_child( $_c->comment_ID );
				}
			}

			// Set the 'populated_children' flag, to ensure additional database queries aren't run.
			foreach ( $ref as $_ref ) {
				$_ref->populated_children( true );
			}

			$comments = $threaded_comments;
		} else {
			$comments = $all_comments;
		}

		return $comments;
	}

	/**
	 * Used internally to generate an SQL string for searching across multiple columns
	 *
	 * @since 3.1.0
	 *
	 * @global wpdb $wpdb WordPress database abstraction object.
	 *
	 * @param string $string
	 * @param array $cols
	 * @return string
	 */
	protected function get_search_sql( $string, $cols ) {
		global $wpdb;

		$like = '%' . $wpdb->esc_like( $string ) . '%';

		$searches = array();
		foreach ( $cols as $col ) {
			$searches[] = $wpdb->prepare( "$col LIKE %s", $like );
		}

		return ' AND (' . implode( ' OR ', $searches ) . ')';
	}

	/**
	 * Parse and sanitize 'orderby' keys passed to the comment query.
	 *
	 * @since 4.2.0
	 *
	 * @global wpdb $wpdb WordPress database abstraction object.
	 *
	 * @param string $orderby Alias for the field to order by.
	 * @return string|false Value to used in the ORDER clause. False otherwise.
	 */
	protected function parse_orderby( $orderby ) {
		global $wpdb;

		$allowed_keys = array(
			'comment_agent',
			'comment_approved',
			'comment_author',
			'comment_author_email',
			'comment_author_IP',
			'comment_author_url',
			'comment_content',
			'comment_date',
			'comment_date_gmt',
			'comment_ID',
			'comment_karma',
			'comment_parent',
			'comment_post_ID',
			'comment_type',
			'user_id',
		);

		if ( ! empty( $this->query_vars['meta_key'] ) ) {
			$allowed_keys[] = $this->query_vars['meta_key'];
			$allowed_keys[] = 'meta_value';
			$allowed_keys[] = 'meta_value_num';
		}

		$meta_query_clauses = $this->meta_query->get_clauses();
		if ( $meta_query_clauses ) {
			$allowed_keys = array_merge( $allowed_keys, array_keys( $meta_query_clauses ) );
		}

		$parsed = false;
		if ( $orderby == $this->query_vars['meta_key'] || $orderby == 'meta_value' ) {
			$parsed = "$wpdb->commentmeta.meta_value";
		} elseif ( $orderby == 'meta_value_num' ) {
			$parsed = "$wpdb->commentmeta.meta_value+0";
		} elseif ( $orderby == 'comment__in' ) {
			$comment__in = implode( ',', array_map( 'absint', $this->query_vars['comment__in'] ) );
			$parsed      = "FIELD( {$wpdb->comments}.comment_ID, $comment__in )";
		} elseif ( in_array( $orderby, $allowed_keys ) ) {

			if ( isset( $meta_query_clauses[ $orderby ] ) ) {
				$meta_clause = $meta_query_clauses[ $orderby ];
				$parsed      = sprintf( 'CAST(%s.meta_value AS %s)', esc_sql( $meta_clause['alias'] ), esc_sql( $meta_clause['cast'] ) );
			} else {
				$parsed = "$wpdb->comments.$orderby";
			}
		}

		return $parsed;
	}

	/**
	 * Parse an 'order' query variable and cast it to ASC or DESC as necessary.
	 *
	 * @since 4.2.0
	 *
	 * @param string $order The 'order' query variable.
	 * @return string The sanitized 'order' query variable.
	 */
	protected function parse_order( $order ) {
		if ( ! is_string( $order ) || empty( $order ) ) {
			return 'DESC';
		}

		if ( 'ASC' === strtoupper( $order ) ) {
			return 'ASC';
		} else {
			return 'DESC';
		}
	}
}

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Changelog Changelog

Changelog
Version Description
3.1.0 Introduced.

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More Information More Information

When you create an instance of this class passing an array of arguments to it’s constructor, the class will automatically run the query method and return an array of comments. See __construct() method for all accepted arguments and get_comments() method to all possible return values.

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Basic Usage Basic Usage

<?php 
$args = array( 
    // args here 
); 

// The Query 

$comments_query = new WP_Comment_Query( $args ); 

// Comment Loop 

if ( $comments_query ) { 
	foreach ( $comments_query as $comment ) { 
		echo $comment->comment_content;
	}
} else {
	echo 'No comments found.';
}
?>

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Methods Methods

  • __call — Make private/protected methods readable for backward compatibility.
  • __construct — Constructor.
  • fill_descendants — Fetch descendants for located comments.
  • get_comment_ids — Used internally to get a list of comment IDs matching the query vars.
  • get_comments — Get a list of comments matching the query vars.
  • get_search_sql — Used internally to generate an SQL string for searching across multiple columns
  • parse_order — Parse an 'order' query variable and cast it to ASC or DESC as necessary.
  • parse_orderby — Parse and sanitize 'orderby' keys passed to the comment query.
  • parse_query — Parse arguments passed to the comment query with default query parameters.
  • query — Sets up the WordPress query for retrieving comments.
  • set_found_comments — Populates found_comments and max_num_pages properties for the current query if the limit clause was used.

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User Contributed Notes User Contributed Notes

  1. Skip to note 2 content
    Contributed by Chetan Satasiya

    Multiple meta fields handling

    $args = array(
    	'meta_query' => array(
    		'relation' => 'AND',
    		array(
    			'key' => 'featured',
    			'value' => '1'
    		),
    		array(
    			'key' => 'buried',
    			'value' => '1',
    			'type' => 'numeric',
    			'compare' => '!='
    		)
    	)
     );
    $comment_query = new WP_Comment_Query( $args );
    
  2. Skip to note 3 content
    Contributed by Chetan Satasiya
    $args = array(
       // args here
    );
    
    // The Query
    $comments_query = new WP_Comment_Query;
    $comments = $comments_query->query( $args );
    
    // Comment Loop
    if ( $comments ) {
    	foreach ( $comments as $comment ) {
    		echo '<p>' . $comment->comment_content . '</p>';
    	}
    } else {
    	echo 'No comments found.';
    }
    
  3. Skip to note 5 content
    Contributed by rogerlos

    You cannot use this class’ get_comments method to retrieve comments that have comment_type set to any of these types:

    • comment
    • pings
    • all

    They are magical reserved words and will short-circuit the query. However, WordPress will let you save a comment with any of those types without noting that they cannot be retrieved without using the comments_clauses filter.

    See https://core.trac.wordpress.org/ticket/40073.

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