WP_Meta_Query::get_sql_for_clause( array $clause, array $parent_query, string $clause_key = '' )

Generate SQL JOIN and WHERE clauses for a first-order query clause.


Description Description

"First-order" means that it’s an array with a ‘key’ or ‘value’.


Parameters Parameters

$clause

(array) (Required) Query clause (passed by reference).

$parent_query

(array) (Required) Parent query array.

$clause_key

(string) (Optional) The array key used to name the clause in the original $meta_query parameters. If not provided, a key will be generated automatically.

Default value: ''


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Return Return

(array) Array containing JOIN and WHERE SQL clauses to append to a first-order query.

  • 'join'
    (string) SQL fragment to append to the main JOIN clause.
  • 'where'
    (string) SQL fragment to append to the main WHERE clause.


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Source Source

File: wp-includes/class-wp-meta-query.php

	public function get_sql_for_clause( &$clause, $parent_query, $clause_key = '' ) {
		global $wpdb;

		$sql_chunks = array(
			'where' => array(),
			'join'  => array(),
		);

		if ( isset( $clause['compare'] ) ) {
			$clause['compare'] = strtoupper( $clause['compare'] );
		} else {
			$clause['compare'] = isset( $clause['value'] ) && is_array( $clause['value'] ) ? 'IN' : '=';
		}

		$non_numeric_operators = array(
			'=',
			'!=',
			'LIKE',
			'NOT LIKE',
			'IN',
			'NOT IN',
			'EXISTS',
			'NOT EXISTS',
			'RLIKE',
			'REGEXP',
			'NOT REGEXP',
		);

		$numeric_operators = array(
			'>',
			'>=',
			'<',
			'<=',
			'BETWEEN',
			'NOT BETWEEN',
		);

		if ( ! in_array( $clause['compare'], $non_numeric_operators, true ) && ! in_array( $clause['compare'], $numeric_operators, true ) ) {
			$clause['compare'] = '=';
		}

		if ( isset( $clause['compare_key'] ) ) {
			$clause['compare_key'] = strtoupper( $clause['compare_key'] );
		} else {
			$clause['compare_key'] = isset( $clause['key'] ) && is_array( $clause['key'] ) ? 'IN' : '=';
		}

		if ( ! in_array( $clause['compare_key'], $non_numeric_operators, true ) ) {
			$clause['compare_key'] = '=';
		}

		$meta_compare     = $clause['compare'];
		$meta_compare_key = $clause['compare_key'];

		// First build the JOIN clause, if one is required.
		$join = '';

		// We prefer to avoid joins if possible. Look for an existing join compatible with this clause.
		$alias = $this->find_compatible_table_alias( $clause, $parent_query );
		if ( false === $alias ) {
			$i     = count( $this->table_aliases );
			$alias = $i ? 'mt' . $i : $this->meta_table;

			// JOIN clauses for NOT EXISTS have their own syntax.
			if ( 'NOT EXISTS' === $meta_compare ) {
				$join .= " LEFT JOIN $this->meta_table";
				$join .= $i ? " AS $alias" : '';

				if ( 'LIKE' === $meta_compare_key ) {
					$join .= $wpdb->prepare( " ON ($this->primary_table.$this->primary_id_column = $alias.$this->meta_id_column AND $alias.meta_key LIKE %s )", '%' . $wpdb->esc_like( $clause['key'] ) . '%' );
				} else {
					$join .= $wpdb->prepare( " ON ($this->primary_table.$this->primary_id_column = $alias.$this->meta_id_column AND $alias.meta_key = %s )", $clause['key'] );
				}

				// All other JOIN clauses.
			} else {
				$join .= " INNER JOIN $this->meta_table";
				$join .= $i ? " AS $alias" : '';
				$join .= " ON ( $this->primary_table.$this->primary_id_column = $alias.$this->meta_id_column )";
			}

			$this->table_aliases[] = $alias;
			$sql_chunks['join'][]  = $join;
		}

		// Save the alias to this clause, for future siblings to find.
		$clause['alias'] = $alias;

		// Determine the data type.
		$_meta_type     = isset( $clause['type'] ) ? $clause['type'] : '';
		$meta_type      = $this->get_cast_for_type( $_meta_type );
		$clause['cast'] = $meta_type;

		// Fallback for clause keys is the table alias. Key must be a string.
		if ( is_int( $clause_key ) || ! $clause_key ) {
			$clause_key = $clause['alias'];
		}

		// Ensure unique clause keys, so none are overwritten.
		$iterator        = 1;
		$clause_key_base = $clause_key;
		while ( isset( $this->clauses[ $clause_key ] ) ) {
			$clause_key = $clause_key_base . '-' . $iterator;
			$iterator++;
		}

		// Store the clause in our flat array.
		$this->clauses[ $clause_key ] =& $clause;

		// Next, build the WHERE clause.

		// meta_key.
		if ( array_key_exists( 'key', $clause ) ) {
			if ( 'NOT EXISTS' === $meta_compare ) {
				$sql_chunks['where'][] = $alias . '.' . $this->meta_id_column . ' IS NULL';
			} else {
				/**
				 * In joined clauses negative operators have to be nested into a
				 * NOT EXISTS clause and flipped, to avoid returning records with
				 * matching post IDs but different meta keys. Here we prepare the
				 * nested clause.
				 */
				if ( in_array( $meta_compare_key, array( '!=', 'NOT IN', 'NOT LIKE', 'NOT EXISTS', 'NOT REGEXP' ), true ) ) {
					// Negative clauses may be reused.
					$i                     = count( $this->table_aliases );
					$subquery_alias        = $i ? 'mt' . $i : $this->meta_table;
					$this->table_aliases[] = $subquery_alias;

					$meta_compare_string_start  = 'NOT EXISTS (';
					$meta_compare_string_start .= "SELECT 1 FROM $wpdb->postmeta $subquery_alias ";
					$meta_compare_string_start .= "WHERE $subquery_alias.post_ID = $alias.post_ID ";
					$meta_compare_string_end    = 'LIMIT 1';
					$meta_compare_string_end   .= ')';
				}

				switch ( $meta_compare_key ) {
					case '=':
					case 'EXISTS':
						$where = $wpdb->prepare( "$alias.meta_key = %s", trim( $clause['key'] ) ); // phpcs:ignore WordPress.DB.PreparedSQL.InterpolatedNotPrepared
						break;
					case 'LIKE':
						$meta_compare_value = '%' . $wpdb->esc_like( trim( $clause['key'] ) ) . '%';
						$where              = $wpdb->prepare( "$alias.meta_key LIKE %s", $meta_compare_value ); // phpcs:ignore WordPress.DB.PreparedSQL.InterpolatedNotPrepared
						break;
					case 'IN':
						$meta_compare_string = "$alias.meta_key IN (" . substr( str_repeat( ',%s', count( $clause['key'] ) ), 1 ) . ')';
						$where               = $wpdb->prepare( $meta_compare_string, $clause['key'] ); // phpcs:ignore WordPress.DB.PreparedSQL.NotPrepared
						break;
					case 'RLIKE':
					case 'REGEXP':
						$operator = $meta_compare_key;
						if ( isset( $clause['type_key'] ) && 'BINARY' === strtoupper( $clause['type_key'] ) ) {
							$cast = 'BINARY';
						} else {
							$cast = '';
						}
						$where = $wpdb->prepare( "$alias.meta_key $operator $cast %s", trim( $clause['key'] ) ); // phpcs:ignore WordPress.DB.PreparedSQL.InterpolatedNotPrepared
						break;

					case '!=':
					case 'NOT EXISTS':
						$meta_compare_string = $meta_compare_string_start . "AND $subquery_alias.meta_key = %s " . $meta_compare_string_end;
						$where               = $wpdb->prepare( $meta_compare_string, $clause['key'] ); // phpcs:ignore WordPress.DB.PreparedSQL.NotPrepared
						break;
					case 'NOT LIKE':
						$meta_compare_string = $meta_compare_string_start . "AND $subquery_alias.meta_key LIKE %s " . $meta_compare_string_end;

						$meta_compare_value = '%' . $wpdb->esc_like( trim( $clause['key'] ) ) . '%';
						$where              = $wpdb->prepare( $meta_compare_string, $meta_compare_value ); // phpcs:ignore WordPress.DB.PreparedSQL.NotPrepared
						break;
					case 'NOT IN':
						$array_subclause     = '(' . substr( str_repeat( ',%s', count( $clause['key'] ) ), 1 ) . ') ';
						$meta_compare_string = $meta_compare_string_start . "AND $subquery_alias.meta_key IN " . $array_subclause . $meta_compare_string_end;
						$where               = $wpdb->prepare( $meta_compare_string, $clause['key'] ); // phpcs:ignore WordPress.DB.PreparedSQL.NotPrepared
						break;
					case 'NOT REGEXP':
						$operator = $meta_compare_key;
						if ( isset( $clause['type_key'] ) && 'BINARY' === strtoupper( $clause['type_key'] ) ) {
							$cast = 'BINARY';
						} else {
							$cast = '';
						}

						$meta_compare_string = $meta_compare_string_start . "AND $subquery_alias.meta_key REGEXP $cast %s " . $meta_compare_string_end;
						$where               = $wpdb->prepare( $meta_compare_string, $clause['key'] ); // phpcs:ignore WordPress.DB.PreparedSQL.NotPrepared
						break;
				}

				$sql_chunks['where'][] = $where;
			}
		}

		// meta_value.
		if ( array_key_exists( 'value', $clause ) ) {
			$meta_value = $clause['value'];

			if ( in_array( $meta_compare, array( 'IN', 'NOT IN', 'BETWEEN', 'NOT BETWEEN' ) ) ) {
				if ( ! is_array( $meta_value ) ) {
					$meta_value = preg_split( '/[,\s]+/', $meta_value );
				}
			} else {
				$meta_value = trim( $meta_value );
			}

			switch ( $meta_compare ) {
				case 'IN':
				case 'NOT IN':
					$meta_compare_string = '(' . substr( str_repeat( ',%s', count( $meta_value ) ), 1 ) . ')';
					$where               = $wpdb->prepare( $meta_compare_string, $meta_value );
					break;

				case 'BETWEEN':
				case 'NOT BETWEEN':
					$where = $wpdb->prepare( '%s AND %s', $meta_value[0], $meta_value[1] );
					break;

				case 'LIKE':
				case 'NOT LIKE':
					$meta_value = '%' . $wpdb->esc_like( $meta_value ) . '%';
					$where      = $wpdb->prepare( '%s', $meta_value );
					break;

				// EXISTS with a value is interpreted as '='.
				case 'EXISTS':
					$meta_compare = '=';
					$where        = $wpdb->prepare( '%s', $meta_value );
					break;

				// 'value' is ignored for NOT EXISTS.
				case 'NOT EXISTS':
					$where = '';
					break;

				default:
					$where = $wpdb->prepare( '%s', $meta_value );
					break;

			}

			if ( $where ) {
				if ( 'CHAR' === $meta_type ) {
					$sql_chunks['where'][] = "$alias.meta_value {$meta_compare} {$where}";
				} else {
					$sql_chunks['where'][] = "CAST($alias.meta_value AS {$meta_type}) {$meta_compare} {$where}";
				}
			}
		}

		/*
		 * Multiple WHERE clauses (for meta_key and meta_value) should
		 * be joined in parentheses.
		 */
		if ( 1 < count( $sql_chunks['where'] ) ) {
			$sql_chunks['where'] = array( '( ' . implode( ' AND ', $sql_chunks['where'] ) . ' )' );
		}

		return $sql_chunks;
	}

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Version Description
4.1.0 Introduced.


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